Preliminary Chemistry Assessment Task

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PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT TASK 1. Identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion of organic compounds and explain how these can be avoided. Combustion refers to the burning of a substance in oxygen. It is a process in which a self-sustained chemical reaction occurs at temperatures above those of the surroundings. Combustion of organic compounds can result in detrimental impacts on the environment such as the generation of acids and production of carbon monoxide, particulates and soot. When organic compounds that contain sulphur, nitrogen are combusted, the reaction may produce gases such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide. When these compounds react with water molecules, it will produce acids which fall as acid rain.Acids dissolve calcium carbonate, meaning that monuments made from marble and limestones are particularly vulnerable. In environmental terms, acid rain flows into water bodies. Acid rain releases aluminium from the soils into the water, an element which is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms. Sulfur dioxide itself is a pungent gas which causes breathing difficulties at low concentrations. Nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory difficulties and damages organ tissue. Under the influence of sunlight, it produces ozone, photochemical smog. Carbon dioxide is an significant contributor to the enhanced greenhouse effect. It can result in trapping more of the heat that Earth is radiating into space and cause detrimental climate changes and rising sea levels. The main concern regarding the combustion of organic compounds is the result of incomplete combustion. Incomplete combustion occurs when there is not enough oxygen to completely burn the fuel to carbon dioxide and water, causing pollution and fuel inefficiency. For example: Pentane reacts with little oxygen to form

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