Therefore, there is langue and parole, - Roland Bather’s early work on popular culture is concerned with the process of /signification, the mechanisms by which meanings are produced and put into circulation. - Post-structuralists reject the idea of an underlying structure upon which meaning can rest secure and guaranteed. Meaning is always in process - Jacques Derrida Post-structuralism is virtually synonymous with the work of Jacques Derrida. Derrida has invented a new word to describe the divided nature of the sign: difference? meaning both to defer and to differ .Derrida deconstructs the binary opposition between speech and writing.
The writer is seen as a literary “prophet”, a “realist of distances” (O’Connor, 818), because he takes upon himself the task of explicitly illuminating that which most other texts merely imply, and thus the scales of meaning are tipped almost entirely in favor of the writer. Writers of grotesque fiction are thus those that go the greatest distance in bringing to the surface the intricate nuances of our existence by conjuring up characters (and situations) whose traditional physicality and/or personality is maimed and contorted under the burden of ideas trying to be elicited by the writer. It is as if the characters are the materialization of traditionally intangible concepts and notions. In traversing this distance, a necessary sacrifice is made of the intermediary subject matter that lies between the essential concrete needed to create the basic familiar outline and the deeper reality that is being highlighted. In part, it is simply a stylistic sacrifice that prevents the dilution of the deeper reality, where the absence of the familiar accentuates the presence of the extreme.
The other is that the author endows unique meanings to a specific thing, which often take a significant place in modern works. In Heart of Darkness, the author adopts the latter. He himself puts an emphasis on symbol and regards that literary works should not be one obvious conclusion, but the rich layer achieved in meaning through the art of symbolism. Conrad utilizes the technique of symbol, leaving the story much room for the reader to imagine and to recreate the text for themselves. The title
It can be argued that pluralist societies gave birth to radical eclecticism and that the trend could be controlled right at the beginning of one's education in architecture or during the start of a young practicing architect's experience. Modern purism was extremely limited due to the thrown out crucial imperative characteristics of architecture or essentially what makes architecture complex and contradictory. The infamous phrase made famous by Mies van der Rohe "less is more" was counter attacked by Venturi's phrase "less is a bore". The everlasting safe-guard of the worldwide adopted aesthetic was made distorted. Post Modern architecture aims at retrieving what was lost in translation, it implicates inclusive architecture as it "absorbs conflicting codes in an attempt to create the difficult whole" by bringing back past accrued styles and fusing them with the traditional pluralistic ways.
This all resulted in a society that for the first time was challenging the norm views about Christianity and revelation, science and the universe and even reality itself. While these pressures where part of a universal response to their contemporary times, T.S Eliot and Virginia Woolf embody their own unique ideas and inspirations in the different ways, through their individual, and seemingly unstructured, elite forms of art. Both of them push the boundaries of experience through formalist techniques, rather than merely representing an external reality as the only means of presenting their ideas. The writing style of modernism is very disrupted, and there is a significant lack of plot and in depth characterisation, which is prevalent in both Woolf’s “Mark on the Wall” which focuses mainly on an unidentified characters ever shifting thoughts, and Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”, which uses structure and language rather than a strong plot to convey the authors thoughts. Instead of the traditional unity and coherence of plot and the cause-and-effect development of the story from there, modernist writers focused on the imperfect, ever changing thoughts of the narrator, whose depressing outlook on life generally led to them taking on
Perspective is presented in first person point of view throughout most of the novel. However with first person point of view, the protagonist has an influence on how the story is told. Only what the protagonist, Pascual Duarte, feels, sees and experiences is told within the novel. In doing so, sometimes it becomes evident that ambiguity might play a role in how the events are being accounted for. “I was never the touchy one, heaven knows, but there are some things… seem so pointed…no way to avoid taking offence, or to keep one’s temper and pretend not to notice” (Cela 74).
Modernism describes the art and aesthetics movement as a reaction against realism. Modernists are similar to structuralism on its view of the world that it is composed by underlying formal systems which can be known and explained (Sturken and Cartwright 2009, 4498). Postmodernism appeared as a reaction against modernism. Defining postmodernism is difficult as it would contradict inherent beliefs of postmodernism which defines that there is no absolute truth. However it is stated as a “ set of trends in the art world that question, among other things, concepts of authenticity, authorship and the idea of style progression (Sturken and Cartwright 2009, 454).
Tripp (2011) proposes that reflection is a vital process of professional development. He highlights the need for practitioners to challenge their ideas and beliefs in order to change trends. Within this piece of writing, a critical incident from my beginning placement will be identified and critiqued using Tripp’s model of critical incident analyse. Tripp (1993) recommends that the process involved to analyse an incident is of great importance to influence a person’s understanding. Tripp (1993) also states that critical incidents are ‘not all dramatic or obvious- they are mostly straight forward accounts of very commonplace events’ (Tripp 1993:25).
This, we understand is one of the main principles expressed in the Marxist theories of Ideology, a topic I will cover later and which creates an understanding of the real and ideal in Romantic Literature. Against the confines of this Idealistic society however, some emerged who expressed (although not always blunt and openly) how there were faults in this ‘ideal’ world and sought to portray the ‘real’. Some of the roots of the Romantic Movement began in literature. Real – “existing or occurring in the physical world; not imaginary, fictitious, or theoretical; actual” | | | This definition, found in the Collins English Dictionary, expresses how anything presented as ‘real’ is indisputable fact. This presents a problem when analysing the literature of the Romantic Period because what is offered is always biased, and therefore cannot be presented as such.
The following essay will discuss, the difference between modern Cartesian subject and the subject of postmodernity, which in essence represent different eras in time. It Will do so by looking at the works of two key philosopher: Descartes and Nietzche, who both focused on these subjects Post modernity By definition, post modernity has been applied since the 1960’s in all intellectual fields. In social and political analysis, post-modernity refers to the approaches which reject meta-narratives, absolute truths or values, the primary importance of human subject (R. Descartes, 1947). It also refers to the belief that society has changed in such a way that we live in the era of post modernity characterised by social division and fragmentation, the importance of identity politics, the massive influence of massive influence of mass communication and information technology and post-fordist production techniques (R. Descartes, 1947). In contemporary philosophy, ‘post-modern’ ideas, from the mid-nineteenth century were set about dismantling the humanist creed of modernity, in particular the philosophy of enlightenment (L. Ferry, 2010), which was a period if speedy intellectual development in Europe.