Weltpolitik could be argued to be a factor relating to the breakout of the First World War in August 1914. Although, it could be said that the war was avoidable and not inevitable, supported by Geiss in source 2 and Mombauer in source 3. On the other hand there are a two other main views which the sources suggest could be accountable for the outbreak of the war, with Deist source 1 mainly pushing for the political decision makers in the Kaiser and his military cabinet, such as Molkte and Tiripitz. The final factor that all three sources partially suggest is the impact of the tensions in the Balkans, mainly between the Austro-Hungarians and the Russians. Altogether, the idea that Weltpolitik made the First World War inevitable by August 1914 is short sighted as this is not entirely accountable for the war but was a contribution.
Dylan Thomas lived and wrote during the Modernism Era. This era started in the early 20th century until the beginning of World War II. Some believe that is started in the late 19th century and lasted until 1965 but that is questionable. Modernism started in Europe but Americans played an important role in it. This era was built from many cultural influences even thought any people were overwhelmed by the creation of new technology and the mass destruction from the First World War.
What exactly does ‘the age of technological reproducibility’ mean to art? Benjamin goes through these questions referring to a constellation of concepts like ‘aura’, ‘authenticity’ which eventually drives to the area of mass and politics. Although Benjamin’s intention might be throw a new conception of art under the new age, the writing has more confound meaning of what new technology especially the technology of reproducibility has brought changes to other aspects of society. In the end, Benjamin gives a discussion of Fascism Aesthetic and war and it seems strange that he jumped from art to war. But taking the whole background into consideration, it makes good sense that Benjamin ends his essay in this way.
In 1941 Adorno wrote The Musical Material, one of Adorno’s early essays on popular music. Written after Adorno had fled Nazi Germany, The Musical Material will provide the base of my research into Adorno’s Marxist critique of popular music. In this essay I plan to critical analysis Adorno’s theories on popular music, including his theory of standisation, cultural imperialism and the relationship between consumer and producer. I will be considering Adorno’s work to modern day examples of popular music, to see if Adorno’s work is still applicable in today’s neoliberal capitalist western society. Alongside Adorno’s work I will be looking into Adam Krims’s opinion of Adorno and his own more modern Marxist analysis of popular music.
Through enlightenment theories brought forth by a move to logic and scientific reasoning rather then religious dogma and superstition, the philosophers of this time opened up thought patterns. Leading to an expansion in creative ideas. Artists felt the inspiration to explore and discover new emotions within their work. Especially within music the rigid structures of form and instrumentation previously adopted by Baroque composers was being thrown out the window by late classical era ones such as Beethoven and Mozart. As we progressed into the 19th century this nationalistic fever was caught by composers and brought forth a romantic explosion in musical composition.
Baroque art was not specifically Italian, although it is thought to have begun in Rome. It quickly spread to the Protestant North, and Baroque characteristics were applied to subjects other than religion (we find quite a number of contemporary themed works). Baroque thus can be considered as a portal that leads to newer style of arts. The word "baroque" was first applied to the art of period from the late 1500s to the late 1700s, by critics in the late nineteen century. Baroque, in arts, is a style in which painters, sculptors and architects mingled emotion, movement and variety in their works.
Britain, France, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany all had a significant part play in the the outbreak of the first world war. The argument that was controversially introduced in 1961 by the historian Fritz Fischer brought forward the idea that Germany encouraged war on several levels, in particular when they urged Austria-Hungary into war with Serbia and continued to do so even when it seemed clear that such a war could not be made to happen. Source 1 makes this argument with specific reference to Fischer’s claims. By “focusing on annexation” and “offering unconditional support to Austria-Hungary” Germany seemed to push towards a war. The ultimatum given to Serbia by
These views were formed in retaliation the the Enlightenment Era and defined the characteristics of Romanticism. Romantic artists and writers sought to portray nature differently than the reason-thinkers of the Enlightenment. Romantics were drawn to the mysterious and rebelliousness of nature. In John Constable’s Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows (Document B) he portrays the appeal of Romantic art. He depicts a medieval church and the power of nature and allows them to work together; to coincide.
In 1919 to 1928, Hitler’s conception of his foreign policy developed in numerous stages before solidifying into a strong program. Hillbruger affirms that the full scope of Hitler’s foreign policy became evident shortly following World War II, particularly through his Second Book of 1928. This book made it clear how methodically Hitler pursued his goals without forfeiting any of his strategic flexibility. Hillgruber also states that Hitler’s responsibility for the war was revealed by exclusively focusing on his role in unleashing the European war in 1939. Hitler’s decision for a second war, which was very different in character started with the attack on Russia in 1941.
Surrealism is an art form that started in Europe in the 1920s. It was actually in response to the Dada movement, a movement founded on the general disdain for war and living conditions. Surrealism was also a protest to the current lack social and moral values, but instead of the absurd, “anti-art” works seen in Dadaism, artists were to look into their dreams and subconscious for inspiration for their work. Surrealism was initially found in poetry and writings, but soon became part of the art world as well. Many Surrealists were inspired by Sigmund Freud and his work with the subconscious mind (www.moma.org).