Porsche Essay

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Case Introduction The Porsche and TCI and 3G cases involves two different examples of investor groups that attempted to gain control of a company using derivatives. In the first example, German auto manufacturer Porsche attempted to take over its much larger competitor, Volkswagen. Since 2005, Porsche had been purchasing cash-settled call spread options on Volkswagen stock. When Volkswagen’s stock price increased and Porsche realized a gain on their options contract, Porsche used the gains to purchase Volkswagen shares. By 2008, Porsche held a 42.6% direct ownership stake in Volkswagen. Despite telling the financial markets that they had no interest in achieving a 75% ownership stake in Volkswagen, Porsche had purchased an additional 31.5% synthetic long position in Volkswagen through the use of cash-settled call spread options. Worldwide, investors had short-sold 12.8% of VW shares. Less than 1% were left available Worldwide, investors had short-sold 12.8% of VW shares. Less than 1% were left available Porsche announced that they had accumulated a 74.1% stake in Volkswagen on October 26, 2008. This caused chaos in financial markets around the world because the German state of Lower Saxony held a 20% interest in Volkswagen, and DAX index funds held an additional 5% of Volkswagen shares. These three groups accounted for 99.1% of outstanding Volkswagen shares. This left only 0.9% of Volkswagen shares available on the open market. Unfortunately, investors around the world expected that the value of Volkswagen would decline given the state of the world economy in 2008, and these Investors had short sold 12.8% of Volkswagen shares. In their frenzy to cover their short positions in the wake of Porsche’s announcement, the price of Volkswagen shares increased dramatically. Porsche made over $6B in the ruse while hedge funds lost an estimated $35B. In the second

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