Although they are eukaryotes like plants and animals, the major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Fungi lack the chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis and must therefore live as parasites or saprophytes Parasites: plant or animal that at some stage of its existence obtains its nourishment from another living organism called the host. Parasites may or may not harm the host, but they never benefit it. They include members of many plant and animal groups, and nearly all living things are at some time hosts to parasitic forms. Many bacteria are parasitic on external and internal body surfaces; some of these invade the inner tissues and cause disease.
Three main factors contribute to this: peribronchial fibrosis, build-up of scar tissue from damage to the airways and over-multiplication of the epithelial cells lining the airways.3,4 Parenchymal destruction is associated with loss of lung tissue elasticity, which occurs as a result of destruction of the structures supporting and feeding the alveoli (emphysema). This means that the small airways collapse during exhalation, impeding airflow, trapping air in the lungs and reducing lung capacity (Figure 2). Inflammatory cells__2 Figure 1: Inflammatory and immune cells involved in COPD.2 Adapted from Barnes, PJ. Nat Rev Immunol 2008;8:183-92 11grafik2 Figure 2: Airflow limitation in
Unit 1 Case Study 1: Tell me about blood. 1. Lower than normal Hematocrit indicates Anemia. Hematocrit does not have enough Hemoglobin which is an oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells that results in having Iron, B12 and Folic Acid deficiencies. The main causes of developing Anemia include: medications and pregnancy, but the more serious causes include: kidney disease and cancer of the kidney, also leukemia and lymphoma.
Clinical Manifestations Clinical Clinical Presentation of Sepsis Classic Hemodynamic Alterations: – HR – CVP/PAOP – BP – CO/CI – SVR – Scv02 Effects: – Edema – Hypoperfusion/ Hypotension – Tachycardia – Tissue & cellular hypoxia – Altered organ function (renal, liver, CNS, coagulation, cardiovascular) Patient’s Clinical Presentation Hemodynamic Alterations: –HR –CVP/PCWP –BP –CO/CI –SVR –Scv02 128 10/14 90/50 (60) 8.9/5.4 614 (PVR 139) 77% on vasopressors ICU day #1 PAC via Right IJ inserted Deadspace ratio performed (Vd/Vt) – Vd/Vt = 67% – AC 28, Vt 480 mLs, .70/14 – 7.32/40/64/20/-5/92% Activated Protein C (Xigris) started Calcium repleted (chloride & gluconate) Vasopressin @ 0.04 units/min started Fentanyl @ 25 mcg/hr & Versed at 3 mg/hr infusions started 6 Atypical Hemodynamic Presentation –HIGH –HIGH –LOW –LOW –LOW –LOW HR CVP/PAOP BP CO/CI SVR Scv02 Clinical Manifestations Coagulopathy – Increased clotting stimulatedmicrothrombi (PAF) – Decreased fibrinolysis –↓ –↑ –↓ –↑ Platelets PT (INR) & PTT Fibrinogen D-dimers or FDPs/FSPs 75 K 24.5 (2.2)/>100 120 mg/dL 10,000 ng/mL (Plasminogen activator inhibitor) Clinical Manifestations Clinical
CJD can be grouped in three categories: sporadic disease, familial cases, and iatrogenic cases. The two different forms of CJD vary in multiple ways in that of the symptoms, treatment options, as well as how the disease is prevented. The pathogen that causes this deadly illness is a small protein called prion. This prion is a small proteinaceous infectious disease-causing agent that is the smallest infectious particle. Prions are neither fungal nor viral and they contain no genetic material, but they have been held responsible for a number of degenerative brain diseases including CJD.
Jaundice occurs because the rapid breakdown of abnormal red blood cells leads to a build up of a waste product in the body called bilirubin.The build up of bilirubin often leads to the formation of small crystal ducts called gallstones. Most gallstones do not cause symptoms but occasionally they can block the bile duct which drains bile from the liver into the bowel. This can trigger jaundice. Leg ulcer A leg ulcer can be painful it’s an open sore that develops on the lower leg, usually close to the ankle. Leg ulcers often develop after a skin infection or injury, such as a cut or puncture wound.
The pancreas is one of the important organs in the body where it produces enzymes that help the body digest the food and the hormones that help absorb sugars. However, when thick mucus is produced in the pancreas, this mucus clogs up the narrow passageways where it can make it very difficult for the person to digest the food and gain al the vitamins and nutrients needed for the body. Cystic fibrosis is a recessive, autosomal disease where it is an inherited disease of the body’s mucus and sweat glands (News Medical, 2013). This disease occurs when a mutation in a gene encoding for cystic fibrosis conductance regulation(CFTR) protein on chromosome 7 (Genetics Home References, 2013). It is passed down from the parents to the children because whoever has cystic fibrosis is born with it.
Without Hex-A, large harmful quantities of a lipid known as gangliosides (GM2) builds up in the nerve cells of the brain. Our bodies need Hex-A because it’s necessary for breaking down GM2. One of the signs of Tay-Sachs is the presence of a cherry-red spot. All affected tay-sachs patients have a red spot that is visible when using an opthalmoscope. An opthalmoscope is a lighted instrument used to view the
Ernesto Sanchez BIO: 187 Instructor: Anna April 16, 2012 Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Even though living organisms were designed to function as a perfect machine, different genetic errors occur occasionally. Many of these genetic disorders are caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. In other worlds, person’s DNA strands are affected. There are many different types of genetic disorders; some are inherited from the parents, while others are caused by acquired changes, or mutations in a previous group of genes. Since generic disorders are present before birth, and the damage from these diseases are irreversible.
Dominant genetic disorders mean that only one parent needs to carry the disorder in order for an offspring to have it, and quite often, that parent also has the disease/disorder as well. For offspring, there is a 50/50 chance of inheritance of a disorder, and if they do NOT inherit the mutation, then they will NOT pass it along to their offspring. A good example of this would be Huntington's disease. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002049.htm Recessive genetic disorders mean that both parents need to carry this trait,