Population and Water Scarcity Essay

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VIEWSANDPOLICIESC ONCERNINGPOPULATIONGROWTHANDFERTILITYAMONGGOVERNMENTSIN INTERMEDIATE -FERTILITYCOUNTRIES Population Division∗ INTRODUCTION This paper discusses Government views and policies concerning population growth and fertility level, as well as their determinants, in intermediate fertility countries; i.e., countries with a total fertility rate under 5 children per woman but above replacement level. The information for this paper is derived from a variety of sources: official replies of Governments to the United Nations Population Inquiries, national reports, official statements at population conferences, and material provided by G overnment agencies as well as the world press. The data analyzed cover the period of a quarter of a century, from 1976 to 2001, roughly paralleling the period from adoption by Governments of the World Population Plan of Action in Bucharest in 1974, to the adoption at the special session of the General Assembly in 1999 of key actions for further implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development. Some general trends in Government views and policies are discussed for the whole world and the less developed regions. However, the focus of the paper is on the 67 intermediate fertility countries where 43 per cent of the world population currently lives. This group includes the most populous countries and the largest birth contributors: Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Mexico, Philippines, South Africa, Turkey and Viet Nam, as well as some rather small countries in the Caribbean and Oceania. Several of the intermediate fertility countries have experienced a rapid decline in fertility (for example, Algeria, Bahrain, Brazil, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mexico, Mongolia, Suriname, Tunisia, Uzbekistan and Viet Nam), while others have had a more

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