What political, social, and economic changes in the 19th century aided the rise of Western powers?

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Political, social, and economic changes in the 19th century aided the rise of Western powers in many ways. Nationalism spread and lead to the unification of Europe, such as Germany and Italy. Reforms changed the economy, also promoting unity through Europe. These are all different examples of how political, social, and economic changes aided the rise of Western power. First, Nationalism changed the map of Europe because it lead to unification. Countries such as Germany and Italy began to unify. Otto von Bismarck succeeded to unite Germany. With Realpolitik, power was more important to Bismarck. Bismarck united Germany through war and industrialization. With industrialization, Germany became an industrial giant in Europe. Italy, however, was unified by Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi. Italy’s goal was to create a free, independent, republic nation. Austria, however, did not want to unify at all. This caused Italian states to revolt, which was not successful and also lead to war. War with Austria united southern Europe, later leading to Italy’s unification, becoming one of the most powerful countries in Europe. Second, reforms created safety conditions, public health, free education, slave trade, etc. These economic changes promoted unity through Europe. Europe’s countries had factors that made industrialization possible because of the amount of iron and coal resources, which were the needed for industrialization. The legal code reform was a very important reform. Legal code reforms reduced the number of crimes punishable by death. It stopped public hangings in many countries, and abandoned other cruel punishments. Women’s Suffrage reform was also a very important reform. Women weren’t allowed get an education, vote, or control their own property. Women wanted attention to vote, starting movements. Women never got the rights they wanted
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