Revolutions between 1820-1821, 1831-1832 and 1948-1949 were all ultimately overthrown to some extent by Austrian force. Prince Clement Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, was a passionate opponent of Italian Nationalism. A main catalyst for this was the issue of Austrian pride. The Liberals, Radicals and Nationalists ideas within Italy (that the people has a right to some say in government, fairer distribution of wealth and greater independence) would completely undermine Austrian control over Italy. In the interest of Austria’s security, Metternich was keen to suppress liberal and nationalists movements, and was determined to maintain dominance so that Austria would not appear weak.
Essentially, the war was really over before it began. Austria’s situation was dire to say the least. In Europe, the usage of alliances was prevalent. One very poignant example was the alliance between Prussia and Italy, with Italy pledging troops to defend and disguise Russian movements. Austria were most excluded from the plethora of links between nations, meaning that if and when war should break out, there would not any nation willing to come to the aid of Austria in times of desperation.
All northern states from the River Main were to be formed into a North German Confederation with Prussian leadership. This war was very significant to the unification of Germany as it was the beginning of Austria’s descent in power, with Austria losing control in decisions made within the German Confederation it gave Prussia the opportunity it needed to rise up in power and unify Germany. The
What debt, if any, did German Nazism owe to Italian Fascism? Analyse the similarities and differences between the two regimes. The First World War has resulted in revolutionary movements across the whole of Europe. The unstable situation did not omit Italy and Germany. In both countries the aftermaths of the war led to frustration amongst the society, economic and political crisis and as a result, to revolution.
Italy had tried and failed to conquer Abyssinia in 1896. Italians also felt that they didn’t get their fair share of territory after World War I when the Treaty of Versailles (1919) made peace and decided who would rule Germany’s former colonies. The invasion of Abyssinia would make up for these disappointments. Abyssinia and the territories Italy already held in East Africa would join together to make a new Italian empire in the region. Abyssinia had the support of the League of Nations, but did not have an army
Chancellor Bülow kept a 'free hand' policy - that is, one that kept Germany out of commitment to other states. What is more, there were plans for the creation of a central African empire to enlarge the country’s colonial power and prestige. Finally the Germans wanted to dominate the European economic zone scheme and create a railway from Germany to Baghdad. As the Kaiser said “Germany had great tasks to accomplish outside the narrow boundaries of the old Europe” although there was no specific plan and many officers were not sure about how to pursue this goal. The reason why Germany needed the Weltpolitik is that it craved to became a World Power.
Separatism contributed positively to Italian unification in some ways, for instance it led to a sense of pride in certain states which led to an increased feeling of resentment towards foreign powers that were occupying, or held power over some states in Italy at the time. This could be seen as one of the main reasons behind the revolts of 1848-49 in which revolts across Italy were started to expel the Austrians from Italy, this was particularly apparent in the revolution in Milan which started as rioting and boycotting of Austrian tobacco imports. Although these rebellions were crushed they were
In 1861-1865, north of the United States won the Civil War that transformed a Union of States into a Nation. This war lifted the institution of slavery that had mocked the Declaration of Independence and compromised the cohesion of American government. Bismarck from Germany successfully effected the unification of Germany. Garibaldi also had a similar achievement in Italy. The Monarchy of Austria also established a hybrid national state.
Why did Germany go to war in 1914? There are many reasons as to why Germany went to war in 1914 such as fear of encirclement, various alliances formed, internal policies and domestic and military factors. I personally think the most important reason was due to their internal politics. Germany was formed as a country in 1871 and so felt like they had to prove themselves as a nation to the rest of Europe. They did this through aggressive policies, which they hoped would achieve their aim and build up their empire.
France might have also been frightenend by the progressing German unification. There were other more politically domestic long term reasons for the war. These were that Bismarck wanted to unify the land that he had won as a result of the Austrian and Prussian war in 1866. Bismarck also used France as a common enemy of Germany all together so that unification could take place much more easily. France thought the war would not only help by stopping Germany’s increase in power.