M. Guy Compare and Contrast: Italian and German Unification The spread of Nationalism throughout Europe was a catalyst of many social and political changes in the 1800’s. Nationalism is the inducing factor that affixes people from the same area or who have continuities in their language, historical background, religion or their beliefs, institutions, or geographic expanse. Due to this facilitator: Nationalism, two nations were formed and broke free from the different nations controlling them. During the early 1870’s, both Italy and Germany among others, had finally become unified and independent. The goals of both Italian and German Nationalism were unification and democracy.
Both Count Camillo Cavour of Italy and Prussian Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck brought their respective nations to unify in their own respective ways. In 1852 Cavour, the Prime Minister on Piedmont, he looked onto other liberal Italian principalities. His greatest contribution was his establishment of diplomacy; the negotiations between states. Meanwhile Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck had a different view on the unification on his country; he was against diplomacy and remained scornful towards liberals. “The great questions of the day will not be settled by means of speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood” (Bismarck).
The Paris peace settlement was a key in both of the leaders foreign policies, as they both were weakened in the treaty of Versailles. Both of the leaders put forward a very radical fascist ideology that idealized national expansion and military strengths as the proof of national strength and prestige of the country. Differences in the two fascist leaders policies start to show in their aims and the planning of them. As Hitler was trying to make Germany the absolute dominant power in Europe, Mussolini's aims were more on the prestige, as he wanted to make Italy "Respected and feared". But the similarities were also great as they both were great opportunists and aggressive expansionists, they wanted to expand their countries to become the dominant powers in Central Europe (Germany) and the Mediterranean (Italy).
Rise of German Nationalism Essay Nationalism: the idea that people sharing the same language and culture should be ruled by their own government. This is largely a concept which developed in Europe during the nineteenth-century. National consciousness grew throughout Europe, particularly in the 'German states', as people were united together in a common feeling of resentment against the French. The Napoleonic Wars and the French Revolution encouraged new political ideas such as Liberalism, which unwittingly promoted nationalism. This was because the new middle class that had emerged in the 'German states', from industrialisation, wanted political representation, and felt that it could only be achieved in a united Germany.
One major component leading up to this was the Industrial Revolution. “The Industrial Revolution, one of the most vital periods of change in Great Britain, occurred because of the stable economic, social, and political stance of the country, as well as brought lasting effects in Britain in each of these areas” (“The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain”).The Industrial Revolution made Britain the leading industrial power in the world. Also, it increased the creation technology and the changed the socioeconomic status of many of their citizens. It was also the Industrial Revolution that caused Britain to seek out a new source of raw material, leading them to extend their power to that of other countries. With their previous control in India and Africa, the British nation had the tools in needed to develop into the imperialist power it would.
Italian Unification Outline Intro- Italy was unified by Piedmont in 1870. Foreign intervention played a somewhat moderate role in Italian Unification, it is evident that the Unification of Italy was dependent on several main factors; the spread of nationalism by Mazzini and Carbonari, the works of Cavour and Garibaldi, the 1848 revolution and the support of other countries. Topic 1- Nationalism Mazzini and Cabonari were the main causes in the spread of Nationalism in Italy. Carbonari was a secret society that organized revolutions against Austrian rule; from 1820-1830 revolutions started in Italy. Although the results were ineffective it was effective in the sense of spreading Nationalism.
Separatism contributed positively to Italian unification in some ways, for instance it led to a sense of pride in certain states which led to an increased feeling of resentment towards foreign powers that were occupying, or held power over some states in Italy at the time. This could be seen as one of the main reasons behind the revolts of 1848-49 in which revolts across Italy were started to expel the Austrians from Italy, this was particularly apparent in the revolution in Milan which started as rioting and boycotting of Austrian tobacco imports. Although these rebellions were crushed they were
Hitler didn't think that any other races should be allowed in the German society. Whereas Mussolini believed that birth into an Italian cultural family was enough to be accepted into the society. Hitler was also much more of a racist than Mussolini, who in fact had Jews in high office before he came under Hitler's influence. Many fascists seek to turn back the clock to a period of past national grandeur. This could be done in different ways, Mussolini favoured a return to the customs of ancient Rome, as well as to create a social-economic system modelled after medieval guilds.
Benito Mussolini’s domestic and foreign policies had a large impact on Italy in the period between 1922 and 1939. Mussolini’s domestic policies allowed the Fascist Party to come into power in Italy, however their hold on the country was never wholly secure. In addition to his domestic policies, Mussolini’s foreign policy drove Italy into Germany’s arms in the Pact of Steel, where Germany was the dominant power. In October of 1922, King Victor Emmanuel III was prompted by a conservative statesman to ask Mussolini to form a government. Mussolini’s Fascism was very popular in Italy because of the fact that it aspired to fulfill Italy’s national desires.