Political Development in Africa

375 Words2 Pages
Organized states did not emerge in the continent of Africa until much later than most of Europe and Asia. The reason of this is that geography, interactions with other peoples, and government did not allow stable, lasting civilizations. The earth and environment played a major role in the development of Africa. The climate caused people to be frequently migrating. When the desiccation of the Sahara began in 5000 B.C.E., the peoples of the Sahara were forced to move somewhere habitable, and they migrated eastward toward the Nile valley. “Guns, Germs, and Steel” shows also how the changing climate affected development. The peoples in the region of the Black Sea had land they used to farm, but it eventually became unserviceable. They gradually moved into central Europe or Asia. Interaction and exchange in Africa also played a major role in development. The main purpose of cities was trade. Trade routes were located across the Sahara and along the eastern coast, the places people could get to. Because of this, trade and cities could not occur in much of Africa. Also, the spread of Islam followed these trade routes. This caused the exchange of cultures to not occur where there was not trade or cities. Politics and government also played a major role in the development of Africa. There were many civilizations to emerge in Africa, but one thing most of them have in common is that they all eventually fell. It happened in a cycle- rise and fall. The growth of some states caused the decline of others. For example, Kush developed in 500 B.C.E. In the first century, Axum had developed, and took over Kush. This shows how the rising of one society caused the fall of another. Another example is that Ghana originated in the fifth century. Over the years, other cultures developed and trade went elsewhere, causing the decline of Ghana. Stable, lasting, organized
Open Document