This abnormal mucus can clog the airways which will lead to severe problems with breathing and bacterial infections in the lungs. These infections will cause an individual to cough and wheeze. Inflammation is caused as well. Over time, mucus buildup and infections result in permanent lung damage which includes the formation of scar tissue and cyst in the lungs. Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) located
coronary heart disease Coronary heart disease is when our hearts blood supply is blocked by a build-up of fatty substances in the arteries. Over a period of time our arteries can become blocked by fats. Our arteries will then become narrow causing the amount of blood flow to our heart to be restricted. This can result in angina (chest pains). However if he arteries become completely blocked it can cause a heart attack.
Invades nasopharynx where it replicates & spreads down to lower airway via aspiration of upper airway secretions. Causes necrosis of respiratory epithelium of small airways, peribronchiolar mononuclear infiltration & plugging of the lumens with mucus and exudate. The small airways become variably obstructed; this allows adequate inspiratory volume but prevents full expiration. This leads to hyperinflation & atelectasis. Serious alterations in gas exchange occur with arterial hypoxemia & CO2 retention resulting from mismatching of pulmonary ventilation (gas exchange w/in lungs) and perfusion.
headache, fever, malaise, hoarseness, dyspnea and chest pain *Assessment incl. normal breath sounds, rhonchi crackles or wheezes upon exertion *Tx incl. cough suppressants, bronchodilator inhalers and high dose inhaled corticosteroids -Pertussis: (Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough) *Highly contagious infection caused by gram neg. bacillus *Symptoms incl. uncontrollable, violent coughing which may last 6-10 wks *Clinical Manifestations: -1st Stage: mild URI, no-low grade fever, runny nose, water eyes and mild productive cough -2nd Stage: Cough changes, inspiration after each cough produces the typical whooping sound as pt tries to breath against an obstructed glottis.
Central nervous system disturbances may be noted with decreased cardiac output. •Observe for chest pain or discomfort; note location, radiation, severity, quality, duration, associated manifestations such as nausea, and precipitating and relieving factors. Chest pain/discomfort is generally indicative of an inadequate blood supply to the heart, which can compromise cardiac output. Clients with heart failure can continue to have chest pain with angina or can re-infarct. •If chest pain is present, have client lie down, monitor cardiac rhythm, give oxygen, run a strip, medicate for pain, and notify the physician.
Common symptoms are acral necrosis of the extremities (such as the toes, fingers, lips and tip of the nose), high fever, nausea, vomiting, and breathing difficulty. Left untreated, Yersinia pestis can multiply rapidly in the bloodstream, possibly causing septicemic plague or even creep towards the lungs causing pneumonic plague. In order to diagnose bubonic plague, testing in the laboratory is required. Identification of the bacterium Yersinia pestis culture in a sample of serum from a patient’s blood is used for confirmation of the
Question A: How could an infection in Cari’s nasal passages and pharynx spread into her sinuses? The infection spreads because the pharynx, sinuses, larynx, and trachea are all connected and the infection is prone to spread to the surrounding areas. Question B: What is the cough reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing. The cough reflex is a long and deep inhalation followed by the closing of the glottis, this causes a strong exhalation that pushes the glottis open and sends air through the respiratory passages.
This results in inflammation causing swelling, increased blood flow, and ulcerations. In Crohn’s disease, these ulcerations go into the full thickness of the intestinal lining. This may lead to a narrowing of the bowel, which can lead to partial or total blockage of the intestinal flow, called bowel obstruction. Symptoms of intestinal obstruction include cramping around the mid-abdomen, frequently associated with vomiting. The abdomen may also become bloated and distended.
Paracetamol Analgesics are used to relieve pain such as headaches. Addiction to these can happen if taken over a long period of time. Also, irritation of the stomach, liver damage and sleep disturbances as some analgesics contain caffeine. Antibiotics e.g. Amoxicillin Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections Diarrhoea, feeling sick and vomiting are the most common side effects.
Exacerbations- worsening 5. Atopy- A state that makes persons more likely to develop allergic reactions of any type, including the inflammation and airway narrowing typical of asthma. 6. Mucolytics- the breakdown of mucus 7. Bronchodialators- medications that expand the bronchi 8.