At 31 miles you run into the Stratosphere. The height of this layer relies on the latitude and the seasons. Our main protector, the Ozone layer is in the Stratosphere. Contrary to what people think the temperature actually goes up as you ascend. This is because of the Ozone layer which is heated when it absorbs the Ultraviolet Radiation of the Sun.
The sun radiates solar energy towards earth. Some of this energy gets absorbed by the earth’s surface and some energy is radiated back into space as long wave energy. Certain gases in the atmosphere prevent this reflected energy to pass; they trap the energy and thereby warm the atmosphere and the surface of the earth just like in a greenhouse. Therefore, those gases are known as greenhouse gases (GHG). The main GHGs within the atmosphere are Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O).
Natural Causes of Climate Change The earth’s climate is influenced and changed through natural causes like volcanic eruptions, ocean current, the earth’s orbital changes and solar variations. Volcanic eruptions - When a volcano erupts it throws out large volumes of sulphur dioxide (SO2), water vapour, dust, and ash into the atmosphere. Large volumes of gases and ash can influence climatic patterns for years by increasing planetary reflectivity causing atmospheric cooling. Tiny particles called aerosols are produced by volcanoes. Because they reflect solar energy back into space they have a cooling effect on the world.
The steam brings hydrogen sulphide gas to the surface and pollutes the air unless controls are instituted. 2. Water contains many salts and minerals capable of causing water pollution. 3. The earth in a geothermal field may subside as the water is pumped out.
J. Subbiondo © 2004The CrustThe outer layer of the Earth is called the crust. It is made up of rock that floated to the surface when the Earth was formed. It is not a continuous layer, but is made up of large masses called tectonic plates.These plates drift slowly across the Earth's surface (tectonic means moving).The movement of these plates creates mountains and valleys.At weak points in the crust, it causes volcanic eruptions. And when plates bump into each other, earthquakes occur -- emitting shock waves or vibrations called seismic waves. The crust is the Earth's coldest layer.
“The increase in the mean temperature of the earth due to excessive emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen.” ( Green) These extra gases are making it hard for heat to escape the Earth’s atmosphere resulting in warmer temperatures. Here is a model of the Greenhouse Effect retrieved from http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html. Ethical Issues on Global Warming There are many causes of Global Warming to include Carbon Dioxide from power plants, cars, airplanes, and from buildings. “In 2002 about 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions stem from the burning of fossil fuels for the purpose of electricity generation.”(Ayres) 93% of electricity generations is produced by coal. 33% of the carbon dioxide comes from vehicles.
Alfred could not explain how the huge masses of land could have moved so far. The major means for the lithospheric plates to float on the asthenosphere comes from the process of convection in the mantle of the Earth. Heat from the outer core rises in the mantle and “melts” the upper part, which is called the asthenosphere. The plates of the lithosphere move in three main ways. There are divergent boundaries where the plates are moving away from each other and new land is formed as magma is released from inside the mantle.
These are boundaries where the plats move towards each other but 1 plate travels underneath (subduction). The less dense oceanic plate is the plate that subsides under the denser continental plate. The oceanic plate with melt as it falls to the asthenosphere creating a mantle plume where we expect to see a strombolian (cone) volcano. These volcanoes are typically tall cone shaped volcanoes. They are as such because they lava is andesitic/rhyolitic which means the lava contains 55%+ silica content.
They are made up of either igneous or sedimentary rocks. The rocks are changed due to the intense heat from magma and the fierce pressure from shifting tectonic plates. Even though the rocks get very hot, they do not melt. If these rocks did melt it would result in the formation of an igneous rock instead of a metamorphic rock. Metamorphic alteration causes the texture and mineral composition to change.
This is founded on dissimilarities in mechanical properties and in the procedure for the transfer of heat. Theoretically, the lithosphere is cooler and harder, while the Asthenosphere is hotter and flows more easily. The key principle of tectonic movement is that the lithosphere exists as separate and distinct tectonic plates, which ride on the fluid-like Asthenosphere. The geological position where two plates rendezvous is called a plate boundary. Plate boundaries are routinely affiliated with geological events such as earthquakes and are responsible for geological enrichment by conceiving topographic characteristics such as hills, volcanoes, mid-ocean ridges, and oceanic trenches.