Pivotal Theoretical Controversies and Theory Building: "The New Organizational Theory"

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One empirical theoretical perspective that contributed to “The New Organizational Theory” is Motivational Theory. In the past, employees were considered just another contribution into the fabrication of commodities and services. What believably changed this viewpoint about employees was a line of investigation, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies. Considering what motivated employees and how they were motivated appeared to be the center of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study outcome. A few of the most important approaches that have led to the perceptive of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory, and Vroom's expectancy theory, to name a small number of. Maslow stipulates that employees have five levels of needs: physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow disputes that lower level needs had to be fulfilled before the higher level needs would ultimately motivate employees. Frederick Herzberg's research classifies motivation into two factors: motivators and hygiene’s. The growth or motivator factors, such as achievement and recognition, generate satisfaction in the workers profession. Extrinsic factors or hygiene, such as interpersonal relationships, salary and job security, generate job dissatisfaction. Correspondingly, Vroom's Expectancy theory is based on motivation and management. It assumes that actions result from conscious choices among alternatives and employee exertion will lead to great performance and performance, in turn, leads to incentives. Moreover, the theory is based upon the following three beliefs: Valence, Expectancy and Instrumentality which work together psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways to convey contentment and steer clear of twinge. Vroom states, that individuals have diverse set of goals and can

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