Abstract The HRM-performance linkage often invokes an assumption of increased employee commitment to the organization and other positive effects of a motivational type. We present a theoretical framework in which motivational effects of HRM are conditional on its intensity, utilizing especially the idea of HRM „bundling‟. We then analyse the association between HRM practices and employees‟ organisational commitment (OC) and intrinsic job satisfaction (IJS). HRM practices have significantly positive relationships with OC and IJS chiefly at high levels of implementation, but with important distinctions between the domain-level analysis (comprising groups of practices for specific domains such as employee development) and the across-domain or HRM-system level. Findings support a threshold interpretation of the link between HRM domains and employee motivation, but at the system-level both incremental and threshold models receive some support.
Instrumentality refers to the individual’s belief that the expected performance will result in a reward. A successful leader will use instrumentality to his or her advantage to motivate an employee with the promise of rewards. It is important however, that the leader is consistent when giving promised rewards for performance. If an employee is promised a promotion or pay increase if a particular metric is reached, the leader will lose their credibility in this respect if he or she does not follow through with the reward. Valence refers to the value an individual places on the reward.
2) - Fostering of transformational learning that is the critical reflection is defined as the historical, geographical and cultural reasons for one’s own needs, wants and interests. 3) - Promotion of emancipatory learning and social actions. In a workplace environment, it combats with dysfunctionality and taken for granted assumptions and therefore, enhance their work performance in unproblematic manner. Reflective thinking that directs on the concept of knowledge critically helps people in improving organizations financial bottom
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Kristina Stemple Liberty University Abstract Abraham Maslow is known for his humanistic views as well as his hierarchy of human needs which was conceptualized based on his theory on motivation. The hierarchy of needs is an organized set of human needs which infers that lower needs are met before individuals advance to next higher need, eventually leading to the final need for self-actualization. The hierarchy needs has raised some questions and challenges, however, it has established some reliability. Maslow’s theory on motivation has been an influence on employees within the workplace as well as with learning systems. His humanistic views and his concepts continue to be relevant in motivating employees and learning.
Behavior is defined as the way a person conducts themselves towards others. Behavioral theory says that leadership takes a strong personality with a well-developed positive ego, and self -confidence is essential. The behavioral management theory tries to explain human behavior at work. It looks at the conflict, motivation, dynamics, productivity and expectations of humans and their work behavior. The main behavioral theories are, Maslow- theory of hierarchy, Douglas McGregor’s- Theory X and Theory Y. and Paul Hersey and Kenneth Balchard-Situational leadership model (directive behavior and supportive behavior) Maslow- theory of hierarchy, Abraham Maslow developed the need theories.
Having employees positively motivated is a key aspect that managers strive to achieve. Not only does motivation create employees to desire to accomplish more, but it also encourages employees to be the best, as well as stimulates better interpersonal relationships. Social Psychology looks at the struggles some employees face with creating motivation, and attempts to discover how to explain the different types of motivation, as well as how employers can be advised to achieve a higher level of motivation from their employees. This essay will explore the different elements of motivation, and how it is achieved. Some of the more specific aspects being analyzed are Goal Setting Theory, empowerment, and Social Motivational Training as scrutinized by various researchers.
A real life example of successful transformational leadership is included. Resistant behaviour transpires when change alters the relationship and understanding between employees and the organizations mutual obligations, that are specified and definite (Wanberg, 2000). According to Albert Ellis‘s rational-emotive therapy (1977) and Aaron Beck‘s cognitive theory (1970), we arrive at a conclusion through our way of thinking (Cameron and Green, 2004). The reactions that are given to specific cases are the result of our thought process (Burnes 2003). Self concepts and values are the main determinants of our beliefs, which influence our attitudes, feelings and behaviours.
Since then, many management theorists have been trying to understand what the underlying meanings of human motivation in organisations are. Two significant theorists that had many impacts within business organisations are Abraham Maslow and David McClelland. Both McClelland and Maslow have introduced unique and distinctive models of human motivation, one being ‘Acquired Needs Theory’ proposed by McClelland (Human Motivation Theory – David McClelland n.d.) and ‘Hierarchy Theory of Needs’ proposed by Abraham Maslow (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs from Psychology 1987). Both of these theories put forward by Maslow and McClelland can be effective and ineffective in their own respect. David McClelland’s theory was established in 1961(David McClelland's motivational needs theory n.d.).
The identification and application of the theoretical model ‘Expectancy Theory’ can be used to predict and diagnose the motivation of Middle Mangers, more specifically, Andrew, in working for the organization and the ramifications of these motivational reactions. In essence, by understanding the strength of desire for a particular outcome and the probability of achieving this, helps individuals to gain a subjective view of effort linked to outcome to adjust motivation and behaviour towards work-related goals. Expectancy theory identifies three elements, allowing an employee to understand the links between effort, performance and outcomes. The first stage, effort to performance, was demonstrated to be highly successful for Andrew. A person with high effort-performance expectancy will be more motivated to perform.
Transformational leaders develop visions that can be inspiration to other people. Models of transformational leadership The most significant models of this form of leadership are those articulated by Bass (1990; 204). The first model is that of outstanding leadership, which is characterized by five behavioral traits that can be used to describe transformational leadership. The first trait is management of attention, which refers to the ability of a leader focus the attention of followers to priorities. Transformational leaders utilize creative and remarkable techniques to draw individuals to the organization and to their vision (Bass, 1990, pg.