Pirate Radio in Europe 1950-1970

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Pirate radio in Europe started in Scandinavia. The Swedish stations Radio Mercur; Skånes Radio Mercur, Radio Syd (at various times) from the MV Cheeta and later the MV Cheeta 2 which was also used at various times by TV Syd and for a time Radio Caroline South while the ship was anchored off South-east England. Radio Syd was shut down in January 1966 and the owner, Britt Wadner, moved to Gambia where she started a land based Radio Syd in May 1970 using the antenna from Cheeta II. In 1961 Radio Nord started broadcasting in Swedish from the MV Bon Jour (later renamed Magda Maria and Mi Amigo). This station was the behind-the-scenes creation of American Top 40 broadcasting pioneer Gordon McLendon and Clint Murchison, owner of the Dallas Cowboys football team, both from Dallas, Texas. In the Netherlands, Radio Veronica transmitted in Dutch on AM mediumwave (192 meter, 1562 kHz; later 538 meter, 557 kHz) from the MV Borkum Riff and after 1965 from the MV Norderney in international waters off the coast of Scheveningen, and soon became the most popular radio station in the Netherlands. Broadcasts were targeted to the Netherlands only, transmitting power was deliberately kept moderate to avoid interference with international radio stations. Most broadcasts were recorded on shore in Hilversum. The station operated from April 1960 until August 1974, when the Dutch ratification of the Strassbourg treaty came into effect, after which Radio Veronica - then called VOO - became part of the regular Dutch broadcasting system, but was unable to retain its popularity. Radio Veronica is now an independent radio station Also in the Netherlands, Radio Noordzee Internationaal (RNI) broadcasting on AM, FM and international shortwave from the MV Mebo II which was originally anchored off the Netherlands. The ship moved for a time off the coast of south-eastern England where it was jammed
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