Review Questions What is the Davis-Moore thesis? It is a thesis that states social stratification has good consequences for society. They argued that societies have many different occupations or take in them and jobs differ in their importance to society. List and define three different systems of stratification in society. It's based off of wealth, property, and power.
Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat” (Marx and Engels 1848). Social class, therefore, is based upon economic criteria and conflict occurs between those who own the means of production (bourgeoisie) and the wage-labourers (proletariat). As well as having economic control over the proletariat, the bourgeoisie also have the power to determine the superstructure; the ruling class can distort perceptions of the world and hide the true nature of social relationships and the exploitation of the proletariat and, above all, promote bourgeoisie interests. Marx defines production as workers selling their labour for wages in order to exchange money for commodities that will meet their most basic needs. As Marx
Social stratification is a hierarchy of positions with regard to economic production which influences the social rewards to those in those positions. It is the division of society into layers on the basis of inequality - a hierarchy (ladder) of strata (levels). Where individuals are on this ladder will affect and determine their life chances in every respect. Social mobility is movement up or down the stratification hierarchy. The 3 main inequalities are class, social status and power.
It is believed that society is made up of many parts to work together to make it function as a whole. Emile Durkheim believed that each person in society as a whole had their own part to contribute to make society function. Furthermore it was deteremined that when everyone did their part society functioned “normal” versus “abnormal” when certain parts were not in synch with the whole. Conflict Theory is the belief that society consists of groups that are competing for resources that are scarce. In this theory, there is almost always a struggle for power with the wealthy usually winning while the poor loose and therefore have less resources.
The price of all goods and services depends largely on supply and demand. Individualism and competition are essential to capitalism. Individual success is valued and people are encouraged to pursue personal wealth, often through higher education or by starting a business. Competition is also stressed as a way of increasing personal success and wealth. Capitalism relies on competition for resources and a system of checks and balances.
In other words, dominant social groups oppress or control lower ones, and it is extremely problematic to change social class and status. Many would disagree and claim that men make their luck through hard- working and talents. However, according to Marx, social class which the person was born in restricts individuals’ opportunities. That is not only does luck determine chance
For this reason, they see the family as being vital to the wellbeing of society as it meets some essential needs, such as socialising children. Unlike Functionalist, Marxists see society as a conflict between two social classes. The first being the Bourgeoisie or the ruling class and the second being the working class or the Proletariats. Marxists see society as a way to allow the ruling class to continuously oppress and by using them to make maximum profits they expolit them. The Marxist view on the family is that the functions are performed for the benefit of these capitalists.
The services provided by welfare states differ from country to country, some have highly developed systems than others (Giddens, 2009). In most societies, poverty and social exclusion at the bottom are alleviated by the welfare states. This essay is therefore going to discuss how these welfare states use ideological state apparatus to secure legitimacy of continued inequalities in capitalist societies. Ideology can be defined as shared ideas or beliefs which serve to justify the interests of dominant groups” Giddens (1997:583). Its relationship to power is that it legitimizes the differential power that groups hold and as such it distorts the real situation that people find themselves in.
The reason why they believe this is because the look at the society in terms of 2 groups (powerful and less powerful groups). They argue that the powerful groups (rich people) in society use the education system enforce their own beliefs and values on the rest of society. 5) Choose one role of education and describe how Marxist would explain this role of education?
Social inequality and social stratification, according to this view, lead to a meritocracy based on ability. Conflict theorists, on the other hand, view inequality as resulting from groups with power dominating less powerful groups. They believe that social inequality prevents and hinders societal progress as those in power repress the powerless people in order to maintain the status quo. Positions are important so long as those in power consider them to be significant. Gender is seen closely related to the roles and behavior assigned to women and men based on their sexual differences.