Physical Networking Nt1310 Essay

1605 WordsDec 16, 20127 Pages
Physical Networking NT1310 Week 1 exercise 12/16/2012 A local land line phone system is made up of many components consisting of the Local Loop, Central Office, Local Exchanges, POP, Long Distance System and Fixed Line. I will use the above components to describe the local land line system. The Local Loop is made of two wires that are twisted together running from the telephone to the central office and back. The two wires are added to many other wires to form a large cable that allows current to flow. The Central Office is exactly what it sounds like it should be. It contains customers that use a specific prefix of three numbers such as 775 used to service a local area in Nevada. Each central office also uses the last four digits of a phone number to specify the customer. Each central office can contain up to 10,000 numbers per a 3 digit prefix. Local Exchange Carriers (LEC) are made up of local telephone companies that service multiple central offices. LECs tend to provide service with other LECs within a designated geographical area, usually referred to as the local access and transport area (LATA). One to two LATAs are generally used to service a small population, when a large populated state is generally serviced by several LATAs. As subscribers are connected to the central office with copper wires, the central offices use trunks to connect to each other and to LECs. Point of Presence (POP) is what provides the interconnection to the long-distance carrier or interexchange carrier (IXC), usually connecting an LEC or two long-distance carriers to meet. We are provided long distance services by an IXC in the United States that connect LECs together sometimes in different LATAs or even in the same LATA. In 1877 when fixed-line telephones were installed, some of the first installations only had the capability to connect to one telephone. As

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