Phobias and Addiction Essay

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Phobias and Addiction Ashley Jackson PSY 300 October 13, 2014 Bonnie Johnson Phobias and Addiction Phobias and Addictions “Learning is any enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience.” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 164). According to our text, phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties that can develop through learning (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Learning can start through many different methods. Classical and operant conditioning are two common learning methods that was established by Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner, with due respect. The results of classical and operant conditioning can contribute to an individual’s ability to prosper and function; however, phobias and addictions can also develop as a result of the two. Phobias and Classical Conditioning Phobia is the extreme irrational fear of a subject object or situation. It is put in a category of an anxiety disorder. When it comes to thought phobia is to be learned by emotional responses. The occurrence of phobia happens when fear is produced by an original threatening problem that is exchanged to another problem with the original fear restrained or forgotten (In Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014). In other words phobia can recognized by unreasoning fear of water which is based on a childhood memory that was lost due to almost drowning. This phobia will demonstrate how that person will try to avoid that situation with showing a response of not being able to cope or just stay away from the problem altogether. There are different research theories that explains in terms what actually causes phobia. There has been some leading theories to referring phobia into the classical conditioning according to (Coelho & Purkis, 2009). Phobias is created through the classical conditioning when one stimulus is put together with another ending in a different

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