Unit 4222-387 Understand the Impact of Acquired Brain Injury 1.1 An acquired brain injury is damage that has been caused to the brain and this can be caused from either by an outside of the brain event or an internal event of the brain. A TBI or ABI, both are a brain injury and the effects are similar but there are key difference in treatment. Acquired brain injury is a sudden change to the brain which was not a birth defect and can happen to an individual at any point of their life. The effects it has on the individual can vary, as well as which part(s) of the brain has been affected can vary. 1.2-1.3 There are 2 types of causes for an acquired brain injury and these will result from either an internal of external event happening.
Dementia Awareness Q1.1) Explain what is meant by the term ‘dementia’. A) Dementia is a term used to describe the symptoms that occur when the brain is affected by specific diseases and conditions. It’s a progressive disease that affected the brain’s cognitive functions. Q1.2) Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia. A) The key functions that are affected by dementia are vision, memory, hearing, language and learning, which the temporal lobe (bottom left front lobe of the brain) is responsible for.
Key functions affected by dementia are: distortion of the visual field, the perception of size, colour and shape of objects may not be recognised by the brain from what the eyes are actually seeing. Temporal lobe Located on the sides of the brain at about the same level as the ears. Key functions affected by dementia are: hearing, language, the formation of memories, recognising people and places. The Cerebellum Located at the base of the brain under the Occipital lobe. Key functions affected are balance and muscle co-ordination The Hippocampus Located in the temporal lobe of the brain.
ANS -D: The temporo mandibular jo int receives blood fro m the arteries near it , which includes the external carotid and its terminal branches since the external carot id artery terminat es in the neck of the condyloid process of mandible. 1 5. ANS -D: The top of the skull appears rounded, whereas the sides appear flattened after the zygomat ic arches are removed. The p art of the skull just med ial to the zygomat ic arch is a depression. This flattened part of the skull and the depressed region above the zygomatic arch constitute the temporal fossa which in life is occupied by the temporalis muscle.
Assignment 1: Centralia No. 5 Professor Raby PAD 500 Modern Public Administration January 26, 2014 Introduction March 25, 1947 marks a very devastating day in Centralia, Illinois. This marked the day where 111 coal miners and their families’ lives would forever be changed. The day 111coal miners went to work just like every other day not knowing they would never return home. There was an explosion at the mine and that massive explosion would change Centralia residents forever.
Unit 4222-256 Understand the impact of Acquired Brain Injury on Individuals 1.1. Acquired Brain Injury is any damage to the brain that occurs after birth. 1.2 Possible causes of Acquired Brain Injury are:- · alcohol or drugs · disease such as AIDS, Alzheimers, cancer, multiple sclerosis or Parkinsons disease · lack of oxygen caused anoxic brain injury (for e.g. injury caused by near drowning) · Physical injury such as impact (or blow) to the head, which may occur in vehicle or sporting accidents, fights or falls · stroke - when a blood vessel inside the brain breaks or is blocked destroying local brain tissue 2.1 The initial effects of Acquired Brain Injury are:- · loss of consciousness · increased fatigue (mental and physical) · communication difficulties is very common · slowing down in how fast they process information, plan and solve problems · changes to behaviour and personality, physical and sensory abilities and thinking and learning 2.2 The long term effects of Acquired Brain Injury can be different depending on the severity of the injury and the area of the brain which is affected. The main effects of brain injury can be grouped into three areas:- Physical Cognitive Emotional and Behavioural Physical Effects · fatigue - excessive tiredness, tasks such as getting dressed or walking around can require much more effort after brain injury.
On September 13th, 1848 a man named Phineas Gage was working as a foreman blasting rock to lay bed for a rail line. Gage had to pack gunpowder into a hole in order to blast the rock. On a particular occasion as he was doing just this it exploded sending an iron rod, 1 ¼ inch in diameter and over 3 feet in length through his head. The rod entered the side of his face, passed behind the left eye, and finally exiting at the top of his head. Gage amazingly was lucid and speaking after only a few minutes.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a result of a sudden blow to the head when an external force is applied causing a disruption of the physiological stability of the brain. It can also occur when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue and when elevation in the intracranial pressure occurs it can potentially change the blood flow within and to the brain. These changes may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness. Traumatic brain injury is a non-degenerative, non-congenital defect in which there may be permanent or temporary impairment to cognition. TBI or concussions can cause long-term or short-term brain damage among a long list of effects.
The immediate aftermath of the reactor meltdown is seen here, this picture being taken a few days after the incident The battle to contain the contamination and avert a greater catastrophe ultimately involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles, crippling the Soviet economy. The disaster began during a systems test on Saturday, 26 April 1986 at reactor number four of the Chernobyl plant, which is near the city of Prypiat and within a close proximity to the administrative border with Belarus and Dnieper river. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. These events exposed the graphite moderator of the reactor to air, causing it to ignite. The resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive smoke fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical
One of the most influential brain injury cases in history was of Phineas Gage. Gage’s injuries opened the door for the better understanding of the brain and the role the brain plays on cognitive functions. Gage worked for the railroad excavating rocks for works to lay the tracks. Many railroad workers, including Gage were injured during construction. Doctors diagnosed Gage as developing a severe brain damage from the accident.