Phineas Gage Brain Injury

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Phineas Gage was a survivor of a horrific injury to the frontal lobes in an industrial accident in 1848. His subsequent personality change provides some of the earliest evidence for the role of the frontal cortex in mental activity. Gage was working as a construction foreman for the Rutland and Burlington Railroad, rock blasting for a new railway line in Vermont. An accidental explosion drove a tamping iron, 3 cm (1¼ in) in diameter and 109 cm (45 in) long, through Gage's head. It entered at the left cheek, passed upwards through the brain and exited the skull through the frontal bone close to the midline. Reconstruction of the injury from damage to the skull using modern neuroimaging techniques suggests that the ventral and medial areas
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