The purpose of this paper is to select and analyze one of the many nursing theories that exist. The focus of the theory and its history will be explored. In addition, the motivational factor behind the development of the theory and the creator’s philosophical beliefs and values will also be discussed. Then, concepts of the selected theory will be compared to the nursing metaparadigm. The nursing theory that will be discussed in this paper is the Interpersonal Relations theory, created by Hildegard E. Peplau.
In this paper I will discuss the importance of a framework of praxis, it’s application to the APN, what influences the framework and employing the framework into context. Praxis Overview Praxis has been defined in a number of ways for different disciplines. For the discipline of nursing it has been described as the art of the coming together of science and practice and linking practice and theory (Kilpatrick, 2008). Praxis can arise at an individual or a group level. At the individual level it is recognizing and reflecting on an issue that restricts one’s abilities and experiences, then taking action to change the issue for themselves and others affected (Chinn & Kramer, 2011).
Describe the evolution of various types of nursing education programs as a response to changes in healthcare delivery. Analyze contributions of past and present nursing leaders to the evolution of the nursing profession. Analyze the role of the nurse as a thoughtful strategist based on how historical nursing leaders have molded the profession. Role of the Nurse This topic addresses the following competency: Competency 740.1.1: The Nursing Profession The graduate analyzes the historical and contemporary context of nursing practice. This topic highlights the following objectives: Distinguish the nursing profession from an occupation.
APNs can facilitate the ability to practice both the art and science of nursing and reduce the chasm between theory and practice by using nursing theory as a foundation. According to Chism, nursing theory is made up of ideas brought together by associated expressions that characterize, clarify, and foretell phenomenon that are in accordance with nursing viewpoints (Chism, 2013). Nursing theory helps to identify what should shape the foundation of practice by clearly describing nursing. It is essential the APN use nursing theory in evidence-based practice, to provide better patient care, improve communication between nurses, and as a guide for nursing research and education. In addition, because the main champion of nursing, caring, cannot be quantified, it is crucial to have a theory to examine and spell out what the APN does.
The theorist’s background and perspectives will be explained and lastly the theory will be discussed as to how it can serve as an underpinning and improve nursing practice. Concepts for the Grand Theory When comparing a grand theory to a middle range theory, a grand theory is much more abstract that uses a wide scope to explain and define broad issues. A middle range theory is more specific, focused and concrete (Eldridge, 2014). Watsons’s theory of human caring is a good example of a grand theory. Watson’s theory takes on a holistic approach to providing care for the patients all around wellbeing.
Compare and Contrast Two Nursing Theorists Callista Roy’s model is that of adaptation, which is an ever-changing point made up of different stimuli tailored to each individual and their specific needs. Dorothea Orem’s model is self-care, which is a human function that is deliberate in providing the necessary means for a productive and healthy life and development. These theories guide nurses to use the power of observation and interpersonal skills in doing an individualized assessment of each patient. NURSING THEORISTS WORKSHEET Nursing Theorist | Theoretical Framework (metaparadigm) | Theory Summary | Application to Nursing Practice | Nightingale, Florence | Environmental theory, Theory of practice | Ventilation, light, warmth, and noise level are essential in creating a safe environment for patients. Nightingale believed in treating the person itself and not just the disease.
This paper will explore the meaning of philosophies, how they are used in nursing and explore my own personal philosophies as it pertains to my nursing career. Philosophies “Philosophy is defined as the study of the principles underlying conduct, thought, and the nature of the universe” (Chitty & Black, 2007). When wondering, debating or thinking about something, philosophies are created. Six branches of philosophy exist. These include epistemology, logic, aesthetics, ethics, politics and metaphysics.
Nursing as a science on the other hand suggests it is the “body of abstract knowledge” arrived through scientific research and logical analysis. It is the scientific knowledge and skills in assisting individual to achieve optimal health. It is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential problem. Throughout the history of nursing there were many different periods that contributed to what is known today as a professional Nurse. These periods are the intuitive period, the apprenticeship period, the educative period and the contemporary period.
According to Rolfe (1993), nursing praxis is the “bringing together of theory and practice which involves a continual process of hypothesizing and testing out new ideas, and modifying practice according to the results” (p. 176). In contrast, according to Kilpatrick (2008), the main objective of praxis is to “integrate theory, practice and art, and facilitate the recognition and valuing of different types of knowledge through reflection” (p.116). This nursing scholar maintains that praxis is a combination of both theories. The integration of theory and practice lead to a continuous cycle of reflection that guides and modifies nursing practice. Nursing praxis can be utilized to develop nursing knowledge.
Elements of a recognised framework by Cormack (2000) will be used as a guideline through the critique process. Critique is defined by Polit et al (2000) as a careful critical appraisal of the strengths and limitations of a piece of research. They state that a written critique should serve as a guide to researchers and practitioners, and should help to advance a particular area of knowledge. The critique should also help those who are practising nursing, to decide how the findings from a study can be best incorporated into practice (Nieswiadomy, 2002). Knapp (1998) points out that if research is to provide convincing evidence on which to base practice, it must be capable of withstanding scrutiny regarding the quality and relevance of the researchers work.