Negative rights to libertarians are essential. Their “freedom from” establishes the ability of the individual as a rational human being to pursue their means of happiness. This is different than positive rights in that they not only require interference,
Explain the theory of duty in Kantian Ethics (25 marks) Kantian ethics is an absolutist theory as Kant claimed what is morally ‘good’ is constant and unchanging. Because of this, it can be a universal concept applied in different societies and cultures with the idea that an action should only be performed for duty’s sake. His approach was deontological because the idea of right or wrong was based on the action rather than the consequence, he believed that this was the only rational basis for morality and could be proven objectively, independent from emotion and opinion. As humans we have the innate ability to reason, something which we gained prior to any sensory experience in this world. This is an idea which is absolute and according to Kant, the way we decide the morality of an action.
The three therapies were discussed and ranked in order of effectiveness in regards to Gloria. The evolution of these theories and their merits are also discussed. When used properly each of these theories can be useful in their own different way. This will depend on the personality of the client as well as the magnitude of their problem. In this review of the Three Psychotherapies that were implemented in the Gloria Tapes it is apparent how different the three approaches are even though they are all considered psychotherapy.
In the philosophical view of determinism with respect to free will, it focuses more on the circumstances surrounding the agent instead of just the individual agent. A strength to determinism is that there is a cause for everything, therefore nothing is left to chance and that there is always a reason to be traced back to. On the other hand, the same theory states that agents are not responsible for their own actions because previous events dictated their behavior, and that is considered by many to be a weakness of determinism. Critics of determinism claim that having a universal view of determinism will lead to moral irresponsibility and moral decay (Nichols and Knobe 664). Compatibilism, also referred to as soft determinism, is “the view that all events, including human actions, are caused.
His view on what drove human beings and what goodness and badness was all about (he believes we are drive by pleasure opposed to pain – therefore he was a Hedonist), 2. The principle of utility, which is his moral rule and finally 3. The Hedonic calculus (a system that helps measure how good or bad a consequence is). It is relative because it does not say that an action itself is good or bad it is purely based on the situation. Bentham was concerned with human rights and democracy, he believed that happiness shouldn’t only be for one person it should be for lots if of people.
That goal is to do what is morally right, if it be through pleasure to avoid pain. This defines utilitarianism. Specific kinds of rules that tells a person what is right and why it is right defines deontology. A good person and doing the right thing, defines virtue. Even though each theory has its own unique way of portraying the act of doing ‘the right thing’, they seem to do just that.
Everyone would have the guaranteed rights of fundamental liberties. The difference principle gives unequal distributions as long as they benefit the worst off (Selections from John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, Reprinted in: Manuel Velasquez, Ethics: Theory and Practice (Englewood Cliffs, N. P.139). Rawls says that for the first principle, basic liberties are important because of moral powers. He says that people need a sense of reasonable justice that can amount to agreements and they need to be able to pursue what is good. He says that for the second principle, inequalities can be permitted if everyone is better off.
In other way we can state that it is always moral to promote self-interest and it is not moral not to promote it. So it is a moral duty of every person to pursue his or her own interest. According to Ethical Egoism, there is only one ultimate principle of conduct, the principle of self-interest, and this principle sums up all of one’s natural duties and obligations. The only way, through which you can help others, according to Ethical Egoism, if it is in someone’s best interest to help others. Ethical Egoism talks only about the self-interest which is better for the person over long run.
The main theme throughout Mill’s essay is all about the individual. Along with the individual are his or her civil and economic liberties. Mill defines liberty as “the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual.” According to Mill, individual liberty has a vital role in society. He believed that one can maintain their happiness without any interference from another human being. It is not anyone’s right to take that from another individual.