Pharmacy Essay

5901 WordsNov 23, 201424 Pages
Pathobiochemistry Final exam questions : 3. year, winter semester 1) Digestion and absorption of saccharides, disorders Digestion of saccharides is done through the gastrointestinal tract: by the mouth (salivary glands) with α-amylase (ptyalin), not in the stomach, in duodenum and small intestine with pancreatic amylase, in enterocytes with maltase, isomaltase, saccharase and lactase. In small intestine lactose turns to galactose, starch and glycogen in glucose and saccharose in fructose. Galactose and glucose pass from enterocytes to blood with active transport and fructose with facilitated transport. Disorders: lactose intolerance (no lactase), saccharose and maltose intolerance (no saccharase, maltase), α-amylase disorder (increased activity by pancreatitis and decreased activity by chronic pancreatitis), malabsorption of glucose and galactose (no specific transport protein), leading to osmotic diarrhea, dehydration, damage of membrane mucose of small intestine and loss of source of energy. 2) Types of absorption of monosaccharides Absorption of glucose is done with transport from the intestinal lumen, across the epithelium and into blood. The transporter that carries glucose and galactose into the enterocyte is the sodium-dependent hexose transporter (SGLUT-1). This molecule transports both glucose and sodium ion into the cell. Galactose and glucose pass from enterocytes to blood with active transport, requires energy and done with transport protein. Fructose is not co-transported with sodium; it enters the enterocyte by GLUT5 and is transported with facilitated transport. Glucose, galactose and fructose are transported out of the enterocyte through another hexose transporter (GLUT-2) in the basolateral membrane. Then they diffuse into capillary blood within the villus. 3) Glycaemia, glycosuria Glycaemia is the presence of glucose in the

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