Using material from item A and elsewhere, assess the usefulness of functionalist approaches in explaining crime. (21 marks) “Crimes are those actions deemed so disturbing to citizens of disruptive to society as to justify state intervention.” Pease (2002). Crime is any act which breaks the laws of society. For example, murder or rape. Deviance, on the other hand, is behaviour which moves away from conventional norms and values such as burping and farting in public.
Plato’s book Laws indicates that people who commit suicide would be buried in unmarks grave. However, four exceptions already existed “(1) when one's mind is morally corrupted and one's character can therefore not be salvaged (Laws IX 854a3–5), (2) when the self-killing is done by judicial order, as in the case of Socrates, (3) when the self-killing is compelled by extreme and unavoidable personal misfortune, and (4) when the self-killing results from shame at having participated in grossly unjust actions. (Laws IX 873c-d)”. Suicide is so something unnatural and against the state. This idea of suicide characterized as a crime against the state (treason) is also used by Hobbes in his book Leviathan (1651).
This theory is also sociological in its emphasis on the role of social forces in creating deviance. Deviant behavior can consist of different definitions. Some believe that deviance is the violation of any social norm and other feel that you can be deviant without breaking any rules or behavior that does not conform to a social norm which may be disapproved. Some people feel that getting away with something and not being punished will be an excuse for deviants to continue to commit a crime. In other words, I think that people feel that if they get away with it once they can get away with it again.
In his essay Active and Passive Euthanasia, James Rachels argues that the reason why it is considered bad to be responsible for one’s death is because ‘death is considered as a great evil’ (1975). Indeed, the act of not breathing, walking, speaking and most vitally, existing is the greatest evil which could happen to a person. Nevertheless, there are numerous cases in which due to unfortunate circumstances people are deprived of the ability to breathe, walk or speak by themselves. Yet, whether having an incurable disease, being elderly, or suffering in other ways, these people are not deprived of existing. Even though they need external help such as life supporting systems or medications, they are alive.
History has proven that people want assistance in ending their life because their quality of life is no longer viable. When health care only prolongs the agony of an illness or disease and the ultimate consequence is they will die, the benefits are no longer in favor for our
The Dangers of Assisted Suicide “Advocates of physician assisted suicide try to convey the impression that in terminally ill patients the wish to die is totally different from suicidal intent in those without terminal illness” (Herbert and Klerman 118.) Physician assisted suicide is when a physician assists their patient in dying upon their request. In some states there are laws giving limitations to who can request such a “procedure,“ but these laws are not enough to prevent the dangers of assisted suicide. Assisted suicide should be illegal in all fifty states because it is immoral, dangerous to society, and can lead to the deaths of millions of depressed people. “Critics of physician assisted suicide believe that doctors like Jack Kevorkian are doing nothing less than playing God“ (Gay 47.)
This issue is looked through many perspectives and arguments. Assisted Suicide 3 A case for assisted suicide is a powerful one, people that oppose any measures Permitting assisted suicide argue that society has a moral duty to protect and to preserve All life, to allow anyone to assist others in destroying their lives violates a fundamental Duty we have to respect human life. One case of assisted suicide that I will talk more about later was
• Non – voluntary euthanasia – where a person is unable to give their consent for example if they are severely brain damaged, and another person makes the decision on their behalf. • Involuntary Euthanasia – where a person is killed against their wishes. Many religions do not agree with euthanasia. Some religions regard it as a type of murder. • The official Roman Catholic Church is against euthanasia and says it is a crime.
Often this issue is framed as rehabilitation vs punishment, as if it's an all or nothing choice between the two options. In reality most people would agree that some kind of balance between the two is favourable. Yet all too often rehabilitation seems to be a mere footnote and punishment is seen as the priority. I will be arguing that this emphasis should be inverted, and that when dealing with convicted criminals rehabilitation should be society's main aim with punishment given less priority. I will attempt to prove that the benefit of merely punishing criminals is minimal and that a justice system that prioritises rehabilitation would have far more overall benefit to society as a whole.
Deterrence is an act or process of discouraging and preventing an action from occurring. When potential killers know that the cost of their murderous action can result in their own death, they are much more hesitant and more likely to reconsider their plans. Murderers are selfish and sick-minded people who have no consideration of others. Isaac Ehrlich puts it perfectly, “ if one execution of a guilty capital murderer deters the murder of one innocent life, the execution is justified.” Therefore, capital punishment should be strictly enforced and legalized.Capital punishment also provides protection to the society. Philosopher Jackues Barzun compares such criminals to wolves.