Central to Freud's theory, and perhaps his greatest contribution to psychology, is the notion that our psyche is composed of parts within our awareness and beyond our awareness. Freud used the term psychoanalysis to label his theories and techniques for identifying and curing the mental problems of his patients. This essay will outline the main concepts that surround Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, thus showing how it can help us understand our clients presenting issues. In order for me to do this I will firstly describe the psychosexual stages in relation to personality development followed by briefly identifying some of the main criticisms. I will lastly concentrate on discussing the applications of his theory to therapy today.
The Author also discusses the possible ethical violations in relation to the study conducted in the 1920’s compared to the ethical standards that would be accepted in today’s time. In another comparison relating to Watson and Rayner’s study, Beck, Levinson, and Irons (2009) converse that Watson burned all of his papers later in life which could have potentially contained the real identity of the infant but came to the conclusion that all of the evidence available strongly supports the hypothesis that Douglas Merrite is in fact Little Albert. References Digdon, N., Powell, R.A., & Harris, B. (2014). Little Albert's alleged neurological impairment: Watson, Rayner, and historical revision.
Skinners’ Behavioral Analysis Marilynn Jones Instructor: Jacqueline Rasar Liberty University June 17, 2013 Abstract Skinner's Verbal Behavior will discuss the important work of namely “Verbal Behavior in terms of its content and effect on the field” (Salzinger, 2003, pg 1). He considers the elements of “paucity of experiments, the host of allusions to literature and the masterful behavior analysis directed at elucidating verbal behavior, the latter constituting an admirable example of how behavior analysis can be applied to other forms of behavior as well” . Skinner's Verbal Behavior in a New Century is this retrospective review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior from the Contemporary Psychology (1997, 42, 967970) found in the 40th anniversary book. There is a long history on Skinner's writings and his work was completed well before it was in the hands of his published work in 1957, “and even if he may have finished off proofreading and other author chores late in the preceding year, Skinner's writings on verbal behavior have a far longer history”. Some Fundamentals of B. E Skinner's Behaviorism journal will fill in all the gaps by synopsizing the various “written corpus into 12 fundamental points that will be explained by characterizing his behaviorism”.
Shawna McAnally Professor Spencer English 101-E102 4 September 2012 The Perils of Obedience In the article “ The Perils of Obedience”, written in 1963, Stanley Milgram, a Yale psychologist, explains the experiments he conducted to see how people would react when they would inflict pain on another individual. Obedience can be somewhat of a problem for people, when it comes to obeying a higher authority. The point of Milgram conducting these experiments was to show that obedience is stronger than moral and ethical conduct. The experiment he set up was to test human behavior on how one would react to obedience. Milgram’s experiment was taking two individuals – a teacher and a learner- and he would see how much the teacher would inflict pain upon the learner simply because he was following orders.
As a result there are a variety of theories of personality which try to describe the cause and effect of the human personality. This essay will briefly compare and contrast two of these theories which include the psychoanalytic and humanistic theories of personality. It is important to have an in-depth understanding of the various types of theories with respect to personality because such a discourse enables psychologists to discover more about social behaviours in daily life (Fiske et al, 2010; 365). Both theoretical viewpoints, while being substantially different from each other, do share some common comparisons as we shall examine below. Psychoanalytical theories of personality stress the individual’s unconscious motivations which can be identified through dreams, slips of the tongue and fantasies (McCrae & Costa, 2003; 21).
Part 1 Describe the similarities and differences in the way identity is conceptualised by the psychosocial theory of identity and social identity theory This essay will look into some similarities and differences within two main identity theories. The psychosocial theory introduced by German psychoanalyst Erik Erikson (1902- 1994) and developed by an American psychologist James Marciaand, also Social Identity Theory introduced by European Jew Henri Tajfel (1919- 1982). Dorothy Miell, Ann Phoenix and Kerry Thomas, (2007) explain that the way we see and describe ourselves together with how we think others see us is a definition of identity. Identity is a very complex topic within psychology and has been studied in deep for many years. Psychosocial theory recognises personal and social element of identity however Erikson seen them as interlinked and treated them separately.
Early behaviorists believed that one could not understand psychology independently of science; it was a form of natural science and should be realized as such. Theories have changed as psychology has advanced. A small number of theories have continued to be as steadfast as the theory of behaviorism. This paper will compare and contrast John B. Watson (1878-1958), Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959), and B.F. Skinner (1904-1990), three of American’s foremost behaviorists in psychology. John B. Watson “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It,” a paper written by John B. Watson, was presented to Columbia University on February 1913 (Harzem, 2004, p. 6).
During his research, Freud discovered the large effects that past experiences can have on personality development. He used this theory and its stages to prove how such experiences can affect one’s behavior later in life. If one of these stages is not completed successfully then the person will experience fixation; being fixed in that stage until successful completion. According to Freud, fixation can lead to an unhealthy lifestyle. Beginning with the oral stage, it is commonly completed between a child’s birth until they are eighteen months old.
Abstract The field of psychology came from several disciplines and many countries. Psychology began as a “science of mental life.” In the 1920’s under the influence of the behaviorists, it evolved into the “scientific study of observable behavior.” After the cognitive revolution in the 1960’s, psychology has been widely defined as the “science of behavior and mental processes.” (Myers, p. 1-2, 2011). Psychology is the science that seeks to answer all kinds of questions such as how and why we think, feel, and act as we do. There are some significant pioneers of psychology that set out to answer just that. This paper is a brief description of the important figures in the history of psychology and the three major levels of analysis in psychology.
According to psychologist Gordon Allport, social psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods "to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other human beings" (1985). It is important to note that social psychology is not just about looking at social influences. Social perception and social interaction are also vital to understanding social behavior. Emergence of Social Psychology as a discipline in 20th century Social psychology began to assert its individuality as a discipline with a series of texts written by various authors (e.g., Baldwin, 1897; Bunge, 1903; McDougall, 1919; Orano, 1901), each exploring a variety of social psychological topics such as emotions, morals and individual character. McDougall (1919) argued strongly for the separation of social psychology from sociology and anthropology, while also arguing that social processes should be studied experimentally.