Perspectives of Watson, Skinner, and Tolman

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Perspectives of Watson, Skinner, and Tolman Behaviorism, one of the strongest forms of psychology refers to the learning perspective of thinking and feeling are behaviors that altering these behaviors can help treat psychological disorders. During the 19th century behaviorism was an emerging thought. Behaviorists studied how behaviors were learned and reinforced. John Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward Tolman, are three men whose theories have remained the foundation for schools of thought in psychology today. The perspectives of John Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward Tolman, in relation to the field of modern-day psychology will be compared and contrast in this paper. John B. Watson John Broadus Watson was born 9th of January 1878 in South Carolina. He was a noted psychologist know for studies on animal behavior and child rearing but most known for his "Little Albert" experiment. He earned his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1903. The "Little Albert" experiment was very controversial and demonstrated classic conditioning in humans. The study was performed at Johns Hopkins University along with Watson’s assistant Rosalie Rayner. In this study John B. Watson believed that he could condition a child to be fearful of a stimulus not normally feared by children. Albert, the nine month old baby was given a series of emotional test and was exposed to new objects for the first time. Albert showed no fear towards these objects at first, until the stimulus object was paired with a loud noise. In this conditioned behavior, Albert then associated the object with the loud noise and would cry when the object was presented. The "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" was published by Watson in 1913 and is sometimes referred to as "The Behaviorist Manifesto.” Behaviorism was introduced in this article by Watson as a new philosophy of psychology. Behaviorism is a learning
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