Sometimes the behavioural skills and interests that children show are dependent on their upbringing and backgrounds, since our personalities and the way we behave are deeply rooted in culture and sub-culture. • Disability or specific requirements (Additional needs) Disability, or specific requirements need to be taken into account when carrying out any assessment /observation. We must avoid
CULTURAL EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR Human behavior is affected both by genetic inheritance and by experience. The ways in which people develop are shaped by social experience and circumstances within the context of their inherited genetic potential. The scientific question is just how experience and hereditary potential interact in producing human behavior. Each person is born into a social and cultural setting—family, community, social class, language, religion—and eventually develops many social connections. The characteristics of a child's social setting affect how he or she learns to think and behave, by means of instruction, rewards and punishment, and example.
In cultural psychology the mental processes are compared with the society and the individual who has grown up in that society. Comparatively, cross-cultural psychologists systematically research behavior across cultures in different cultural situations (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Critical Thinking Critical thinking in cross-cultural psychology is important because cross-cultural psychology is about identifying the similarities and differences in individuals and how they function in his or her culture. Critical thinking is about making realistic, valid and reasonable evidence. Critical thinking is described as maintaining an attitude that is open=minded and doubtful (Shiraev & Levy, 2010).
Based on the different cultures and the ways people are raised gives them different traits that can influence their behavior and give them certain characteristics towards their personality. The people that raise you have a huge impact on your personality because you develop some of their similar traits. Growing up in different areas of the world with certain rules of that culture with develop a different personality that someone growing up in Northern America. Certain childhood experiences that had a significant impact in life or just having a different outlook on life can cause differences in personality. Past relationships can also have a huge impact on someone personality based on the seriousness of the relationship.
Prior to analyzing human development through the scientific study, philosophers offered theories to explain age related differences observed in individuals of different ages. Many of these theories continue to influence the field of human development and many Western beliefs in practiced today, originated from those theories (Boyd & Bee, 2006). This paper will consider human development in the areas of prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Developmental theories pertaining to the various stages of development will be explored as will the affect early stages have on later development. Finally, this future clinician will attempt to evaluate how the knowledge learned in this class will influence planning inventions in her specialization of clinical psychology.
Nations and cultural groups also differ in how particular types of education, work, or family roles are valued, and these perceptions tend to be internalized by group members and reflected in their choices. Career development can be thought of in both structural and developmental terms (Herr & Cramer, 1996). The structure of career development refers to the elements that comprise concepts like career maturity, career adaptability, career planfulness, and person-job congruence (Holland, 1997). Career maturity, for example, in adolescence and career adaptability in adulthood tend to include five factors: planfulness or time perspective, exploration, information, decision making, and reality orientation. These five factors are structural components of career maturity, and each factor has its own structural sub-elements (cited in Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology & Behavioral Science,
The main principle of lifespan psychology is that human development is influenced by external (historical and cultural) and internal (psychological and physiological) factors. It finds it's reflection in internal working models which seem to be influenced by fixity and change. Developmental psychology aims to understand connections between experiences and behaviours in childhood and adulthood, as well as identify continuities between those points; it therefore implies that although internal working models become fixed with time, they can
IB Psychology 1 H435-2 Erikson’s psychological theory of psychosocial development in adolescents has been supported and disputed, showing many strengths and weaknesses, by a multitude of case studies most specifically Rutter et al and Espin et al. Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan and shows how he believes that personality develops in a series of eight different stages. Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life and experiencing a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. He believes that if the “stage” is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery but if the stage is handled poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy. In Erikson’s view he sees these conflicts centered around developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality.
Include the following: • Explain how families affect the development of infants and young children. • Evaluate different parenting styles and their influence on development during infancy and early childhood. Include which parenting style you feel is most effective and why. • Discuss early childhood education and its influence on cognitive development. • Include at least two references.
Cross-Cultural Psychology Cathy Perry Psy 450 November 14, 2011 Professor Sayida Peprah Cross-Cultural Psychology One of the more noteworthy developments in psychology during the past 35 years has been the rapid ascent of cross-cultural psychology (Lonner, 2000). In cross-cultural psychology individuals from at least two different cultures are studied. This branch of psychology aids the psychologist in using scientific research and critical thinking as a means for problem solving and observation between cultures (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Cross-cultural psychology has a vision to captivate a common link a culture and its inhabitants. This psychology is extremely complex and is a definite link with cultural psychology.