Social psychology and prosocial behaviour are contributing factors to helping behaviours. McDougall argued that prosocial behaviour is the result of “tender emotions” created by the parental instinct (1908). There is a meso level of analysis that examines helping behaviours at a personal level, where one helps another person. So, when do people help? Firstly we have to consider the bystander intervention.
The first argument, that subjectivism creates infallible moral agents, reads as follows. In subjectivism, to say something is bad is to say one has a bad feeling about it. As one can not be mistaken about their feelings, one can not be mistaken about moral judgements. For those who have encountered someone with very objectionable moral viewpoints however, perhaps violent homophobia or racism, it seems obtuse to suppose such people to be as equally moral as a loving and accepting person. The argument concludes with the claim that, despite the supposed infallibility, people are often mistaken in their moral judgements.
Prosocial behaviour selfless or selfish Prosocial is defined in the oxford dictionary as: “relating to or denoting behaviour which is positive, helpful, and intended to promote social acceptance and friendship.” oxford dictionary (2012). In this essay I will discuss whether prosocial behavior is selfless or selfish, I will discuss several theories that suggest prosocial behaviour is selfish such as the evolutionary theory, kin selection, reciprocal altruism and the cost reward model. I will also discuss several theories that suggest prosocial behaviour is selfless such as the social learning theory, norm of reciprocity, norm of social responsibility and social and cultural influences. There are several theories as to why prosocial behaviour is selfish; these include evolutionary theory, kin selection, reciprocal altruism and the cost reward model. The evolutionary theory suggests that “prosocially tendencies exist in humans because of (a) genetically based predispositions to act prosocially, and (b) the evolutionary success of people who displayed such predispositions”.
Internal definitions include sources of biological and psychological properties whereas fulfillment and objectives encourage motivation are defined within external definitions. Additionally, when considering the actions of behavior both internal and external foundations are manipulated by both internal and external motivation sources. “Motivation is what aids individuals actions and decisions. Motivation is the sister to what we determine as behavior, including our needs, desires, and ambitions in life.” Rabideau (2005, para. 2) The experiences of change an individual experiences derives from motivation.
To which the id demands pleasure and satisfaction, the ego deals with the demands from the id and superego, and the superego is the ethical element which is the conscience and may produce feelings of guilt. The Behaviorism perspective is where any physical action is a behavior which everything that is living does such as acting, thinking, and feeling. Arthur W. Staats’ merges psychological concepts like personality within a behavioral model like Basic Behavioral Repertoires. Humanistic Perspective is the positive image of what it means to be a human being. The ones who theorize the humanistic perspective focus mostly on methods that allow fulfillment of potential.
Contrast Sigmund Freud’s view of human nature with the view of Abraham Maslow. With which, if either, view do you agree? 4. Altruism refers to behavior that helps others but does not appear to help the person performing the behavior. Describe an example of altruistic behavior, and state how a psychodynamic psychologist might explain the behavior.
This awareness is hypothesized to be deeply threatening • A model hypothesizing that recognition of their own morality raises anxiety in humans, which they can reduce by affirming and conforming to their cultural worldview • This conforming act gives meaning to existence • Reminding people of their morality increases their use of stereotypes • Basically, conformity to social values and cultural worldviews can serve to protect people from death anxiety • This provides a sense of symbolic immortality o Social impact theory • A model that conceives of influence fro other people as being the result of social forces acting on individuals, much as psychical forces can affect an object • Strength of social force (intensity) matters • Immediacy refers to the closeness of each social force • Numbers refers to the quantity of social forces present • Psychosocial law • A principle in social impact theory that specifies the nature of the relation between the size of a group and its social influence. The principle predicts that as the number of social forces increases, overall social influence also increases, but at a declining rate
With reference to Singer’s statement that, “… prevent evil… without sacrificing something of comparable moral significance”, in as much as the act of helping a friend who is suffering in a critical condition is morally good, in contrast, it is morally wrong to rob people at gun point. It would be sacrificing something of comparable moral significance for another. In other words, it is wrong to do a wrong action because of a right one. Singer also emphasizes the fact that you must be in the position to help. I think is a plausible idea since you cannot give what you do not have.
Although positivists prefer taking objective social facts into account, it is evident that they are subjective in the source of data they will use, or are bound to use. Interactionalists, on the other hand consider that the reality of social behaviour is to be found when individuals interact and create their own social experiences. They seek meaning, and probe into the beliefs of individuals acting together in groups. Interactionalists use qualitative data. This data deals with the quality of human experience.
The phenotypic plasticity is altruistic because of the way they help each other make the adaption from one lifestyle to the next. The thing that favors phenotypic plasticity is adaptation. Kin selection is another selective force that favors altruism. The study that comes to mind for this particular force is also the “Cinderella Effect”, because biological parents are expected to treat