Pdanalysis Example Essay

280 Words2 Pages
ETHICAL CASE STUDIES Case study 1: Milgram's experiments on obedience to authority In a series of famous - and notorious - experiments, Stanley Milgram (1974) studies the factors involved in obedience to authority. Milgram recruited volunteers through a newspaper advert, which described a study of "learning and memory". Upon arriving at the laboratory the volunteers were met by the 'experimenter' and by another 'subject', who was actually a confederate of the research team. The experimenter explained that the study dealt with the effects of punishment on learning, and that one of the subjects would be the teacher and one the learner. Lots were apparently drawn, but it was arranged that in each case the volunteer would be the teacher. Teacher and learner were then taken to a room where the learner was strapped into a chair and electrodes fixed to his wrists. The volunteer/teacher was told that the punishment to be applied was electric shock, and that these shocks could be extremely painful, although they would cause no permanent damage. Next the volunteer/teacher was taken to his own room where he was given his instructions; every time the learner made a mistake, he was to give an increasingly high electric shock by way of punishment. The intensity of these shocks - as displayed on a 'shock generator' - ranged from 15V to 450V. the various levels were labelled, ranging from 'mild shock', to 'moderate shock', 'strong shock', 'very strong shock', 'danger: severe shock', and 'XXX'. The 'shock generator' was made to look as realistic as possible, and furthermore, the volunteer/teacher was given a 'trial shock of 45V. The 'trial shock' was actually the only real shock given during the
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