Level 2 KNOW THE MAIN STAGES OF CHILD AND YOUNG PERSON DEVELOPMENT | PHYSICAL | INTELLECTUAL/ COMMUNICATION | SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL/ BEHAVIOURAL | 0-6 MONTHS | Turn their heads towards sound. Knows scent of mother’s breast milk. Grasps and shakes hand toys Put everything in their mouths. Crawling and Rolling over. Reach up to hold feet when lying on their backs.
Development is the process of learning new skills and abilities. Development changes are a result of both environmental and genetic factors. Genetic factors are responsible for growth whilst the environmental factors are responsible for emotional development. The development of a child is sub categorised into difference key stages that take place during the first eight years of their life: Intellectual Physical Social and Emotional Language and Communication Intellectual 0-2 years: From birth – 3 months infants have the ability to focus on objects that are a few inches away from them. From 3-6 months they begin to develop their co-ordination and enjoy the stimulation of bright and shiny objects.
From birth through to adulthood children continually grow, develop, and learn. A child’s development can be measured through social, emotional, intellectual, physical and language developmental milestones. In general, child development progresses from head to toe. Beginning at the top of the body and gradually moving downwards from inner to outer. Firstly gaining control of muscles close to the head and then moving outwards so the large muscles in the shoulders and upper arms/thighs are first and the extremities last from simple to complex; children progress from simple words to complex sentences from general to specific; emotional responses involve the whole body in young babies but may involve only the face in an older child It is important to understand how children develop physically, socially, emotionally and intellectually and to know that all areas of development
For example, a toy that is hung in front of an infant causes the baby to want to touch it, once the baby touches the toy it swings. The infant notices that it was her that caused the toy to swing. She also discovers that it will not swing again unless the same action is performed, Piaget refers to this as “circular reaction”. In order for infants to learn they become repetitive with their behavior until it is mastered, then it is considered intentional. Mental representation enables children to rely on memory, perception and repetition in order to solve problems.
If trust develops successfully, the child gains confidence and security in the world around him and is able to feel secure even when threatened. Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result in an inability to trust, and therefore an sense of fear about the inconsistent world. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Between the ages of one and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.
The environment provided to the children is peaceful and relaxed. The parents specifically designated this time just for the two children so they can freely interact and play as they please. They also placed quite a few toys scared around the area for them to play while being supervised from a short distance. One of Piaget’s theories describes the children’s as “little scientists” which in a way is their drive for discovery. They are more then little babies who need to be feed with information to learn.
All these activities help children learn. Have preferred learning styles and learn at different rates Some children will learn better by having something described to them whilst others will prefer to try and work it out themselves. Some will work better in small groups whilst others will prefer one to one support. Children will also be sensitive to the noise environment of the classroom. Too much noise or not
The power of pretend! What is pretend play? Pretend play, sometimes called imaginative play, fantasy play, symbolic play and sociodramatic play, refers to a kind of mental activity whose outward manifestations are verbal and nonverbal or both (Ariel, 2002). Children act out real events and they also take part in fantasy play about things that are not real, such as fairies or super heroes. Children try out roles, occupations and experiences in their pretend play.
• Loss of a comforter: The transition between having a soother, dummy or pacifier and not having one can be quite traumatic. Supportive relationships will understand that what a child has come to rely on for reassurance and comfort to assist sleep and achieve calm may well be gone. • Move from crawling to walking - this transition sees children reach new perspectives on their lives, viewing the world around them from an independently upright position. They can obtain items with greater ease, move with increasing speed. Supportive relationships will ensure children explore their environment safely with interest and enjoyment.
1. Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important. Development is the gaining of skills in all aspects of the child’s life. We have four main types of children’s development : Physical development: this refers to the body increasing in skill and performance. Social and emotional development: this is the development of a child’s identity and self-image, relationships and feelings Intellectual development: this is learning the skills of understanding, memory and concentration.