The Melbourne gang research (White et al., 1999) highlighted the importance of dealing with the youth gang phenomenon across a number of dimensions, taking into account the very different social histories and socio-economic circumstances of the young people. 6 Evidence into Action Topical Paper –Anti-gang strategies and interventions– April 2007 Australian Research Alliance for Children & Youth It is also essential to consider the policy implications of gang research in regards to the institutional measures that might be designed and utilised to curtail gang formation and gang-related activities. The starting point for policy development and formulation of intervention strategies is careful analysis of what precisely ‘the problem’ actually is. Canadian researchers such as Gordon (2000) and American criminal justice agencies (United States Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1997, 1998) emphasise the importance of local community-based anti-gang programming based upon an appreciation of the diversity of youth group formations, as well as the dynamics
Critically evaluate youth policy and the challenges it poses for Community and Youth Workers in youth work practice. The purpose of this essay is to critically evaluate Youth Policy, its impact on youth work practice and the social development of young people within society. A historical perspective on the evolution of Youth Work into its modern context will be followed by an analysis of current youth work policy and the political ideology pertinent to its present development. A critical analysis of the contemporary policies will be undertaken as to their effectiveness as a form of intervention to the perceived circumstance of the youth off today. The principles of informal education and the nature of empowerment will be explored and related to the tendency of government policy to attempt to affect social control with regards to power, empowerment, and participation.
These concept explain crime at levels of the society, the individual, and the group. An individual’s potential for criminality depends on the competition between associations that treat criminal behavior positively and those who treat it negatively (Vandelay, 2010, p.1) The main points of Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory are the nine propositions which are one that criminal behavior is learned second which is similar to the first proposition is that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other people in an attempt to communicate. The third main point or proposition is that the principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. The fourth main point is that when criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes; the techniques of committing the crime which are sometimes complicated or very simple and the specific motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. The fifth main point is the specific direction of motives and drive is learned from the definition of the legal codes whether it is favorable or unfavorable.
Theoretical positions such as social learning theory which lies heavily on behaviourist principles will be looked at, parenting styles where patterns of parenting will be discussed and inter-generational transmission which serves to perpetuate society’s inequalities and disadvantages with negative connotations for a child’s psychological development (Ding, S. & Littleton, K. 2005). “Disturbed” and “Disturbing Behaviour” will also be explored. The medical model and social model perspectives challenge the understanding in terms of attributing cause of problem behaviour to either the child or environment, discussion will take place around ecological adaptiveness (Brofenbrenner, 1979; Brofenbrenner and Morris, 1998) and how problems are defined through relationships between children, their social context and the beliefs and judgements of the assessing adults (Ding, S. & Littleton, K. 2005). The essay will conclude with a view of just how important sensitive
How did the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 change the sentencing process for young people? The 1999 Criminal Evidence Act was introduced for the following reasons; to provide for the referral of offenders under 18 to youth offender panels; to make provision in connection with the giving of evidence or information for the purposes of criminal proceedings; to amend section 51 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994; to make pre-consolidation amendments relating to youth justice; and for connected purposes.’ [27th July 1999] The Act is about improving the effectiveness of the youth court and preventing offending by children and young people. This is now the principal aim of the youth justice system. Changes to the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act gave further reforms to the youth court, these changes created a new sentence of referral to a youth offender panel, known as a Referral Order. A Referral Order will be available for young people convicted for the first time and its primary aim is to prevent re-offending.
Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Introduction This project focuses on the cognitive, emotional and social development of humans during middle childhood. It entails the factors that influence development and the relevant developmental theories which were developed to help understand development. Table of Content Content Page Specific objectives: 5.5: Recognize the relevance of Erickson’s theory in middle childhood development……………………………………………...…..2 5.6 Understand the changes in self-development seen during middle childhood…………………………………………………………3 5.7 Know the emotional and moral developmental milestones in middle childhood……………………………………………………….4 5.8 Appreciate the significance of peer and family relations in middle childhood………………………………………………………..…5-7 5.9 Recognize some common problem of development seen in middle childhood………………………………………………………..…..8 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………10 5.5: Recognize the relevance of Erickson’s theory in middle childhood development. Erikson’s Theory: Industry versus Inferiority Erikson believed that the combination of adult expectations and children’s drive towards mastery sets the stage for psychological conflict of middle childhood, industry versus inferiority, which is resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks. Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.
Running-Head: Play Therapy Yves Gerald Play Therapy and its Implication in Child Development 2/7/12 Introduction Montaigne, a French classical writer and philosopher of 16th century made this statement: “If you wish to understand your child, you need to understand his play.” In fact, researchers consider play the leading vehicle for learning in childhood. Play is essential to young child’s health (Life-Span Development, p. 27) and has many functions. Theorists, indeed, have focused on different aspects of play and highlighted a long list of functions. According to Freud and Erikson, play helps the child master anxieties and conflicts (Lifespan, p.27). It permits the child to work off excess physical energy and to release unexpressed tensions.
The conflict perspective is defined in the text as a sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups (Schaefer 15). It’s the competition for scarce resources and how the elite control the poor and week (CliffNotes). This perspective views society as characterized by tension and struggle between groups; the individual as shaped by power, coercion, and authority; and social order as maintained through force and coercion (Schaefer 19). Conflict theorists view education as an instrument of elite domination and thinks that schools take away students individualism and creativity (Schaefer 220). Some conflict theorists believe education is controlled by the state which is controlled by the powerful, and its purpose is to reproduce existing inequalities, as well as legitimize ‘acceptable’ ideas which actually work to reinforce the
This study will also try to offer suggestions as to how further studies can be improved and how to solve the problem of juvenile delinquency. It will also present some of the limitations that can be faced when conducting studies on this topic of juvenile delinquency. Definition of terms Juvenile delinquency- this is the broad-based term given to juveniles who commit crimes. Juveniles are defined as individuals who haven’t reached adulthood or the age of majority. (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-juvenile-delinquency.htm) Delinquency- this is defined as, failure or omission of duty; a fault; a misdeed; an offense; a misdemeanor; a crime.
According to Piaget, morality develops with age meaning that as the child’s theory of mind develops they also develop the ability to make judgement on moral behaviour. Piaget’s theory is centred on stages on what he termed as developmental stages, but in relation to moral development he introduced new concept he termed moral orientation which he divided into two types. He called them the heteronomous and autonomous morality. During the heteronomous period a child follows set rules and they believe that these rules cannot be changed and during the autonomous period the child will start to believe that laws or rules can be changed and they will go on to set their own rules which they can follow and change them if need be (Gross, 2010. The results of the case study in Gross (2010) showed that in pro-social settings, Chinese children regard truth telling less positively and lying more positively in pro-social environment than children from Canada.