Parliamentary Vs. Presidential System

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Presidential government is often associated with the theory of the separation of powers which was popular in the eighteenth century when the American constitution was framed. The American political system is therefore the model and prototype of presidential government The assembly remains an assembly only: parliamentary theory implies that the second phase of the constitutional develepmoent, in which the assembly and judiciary claim their own areas of jurisdiction alongside the executive, shall give way to a third in which assembly and government are fused into parliament. Presidential theory on the other hand requires the assembly to remain separate as in the second phase. some believe the rigid constitution has prevented the “natural” development of the American political system towards parliamentarism. congress remains an assembly only. The executive is not divided but is a president elected by the people for a definite term at the time of assembly election: The presidential executive is elected by the people. The president is elected for a definite term of office. this prevents the assembly from forcing his resignation, and at the same time requires the president to stand for re-election if he wishes to continue in office. equally important is the election of the president at the time of the assembly election. The head of the government is head of state: Whereas in pre-parliamentary monarchies the head of state was also the head of the government, in the presidential system it is the head of the government who becomes at the same time head of state. The president appoints heads of departments who are his subordinates: In parliamentarism the prime minister appoints his colleagues who together with him form the government. In presidential systems the president appoints secretaries, who are heads of his executive departments. The
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