Smaller groups will look at specific policy issues and legislation in detail. There are different committees with different roles e.g. offering advice, producing reports and altering legislation. Parliament has the responsibility to pass new legislation. The majority of new laws or changes to existing laws come from government but the can also come from MP’s, Lords or even a member of the public.
These laws reflect political developments both within and outside the UK. They include: - The devolution of power to bodies like the Scottish Parliament and Welsh assembly -The Human Rights Act 1998. -The UK's entry to the European Union in 1972. -The Factortame Case The concept of parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom has long been debated. Since the subordination of the monarchy under parliament and the increasingly democratic methods of parliamentary government, there has been the question of whether parliament holds a supreme ability to legislate and whether it should or should not.
It is through laws that policies of government are laid down for implementation. It does however have many constitutional roles to fulfil such as the power of the purse, oversight, foreign policy and legislation. It can be argues that Congress does fulfil its constitutional roles as it may deliver effective over sighting, legislation, money bills, representation and foreign policy that may provide good checks and balances. However, most would argue that Congress may not carry its roles effectively thus leading to poor scrutiny (sometimes over scrutinising) which leads to ineffective fulfilment of constitutional roles. The principle organ of the US state is to legislate, represent and scrutinise the other, safely separated, branches of the government.
M4 analyse how government policies are developed What is a policy? A policy is a statement of what the government is trying to achieve and why. Government policy is the sum of all the individual policies – as a whole they help to define where the government stands on broad political issues. Reference https://www.gov.uk/government/how-government-works Policies come from a number of sources such as: • The public • The media • Public services • Politicians • Subject experts • Civil servants The first process of developing a policy is actually deciding what is going to be contained in that policy in many instances the details of a policies are left to experts within a civil service department who are there to work for the government. Government lawyers are responsible for actually
However, this reform of the judiciary had formed conflicts between the government ministers and the judiciary due to several reasons. These included the risk of citizens’ rights as a result of the increasing political role of the judiciary. Some even suggest that judicial power has become controversial due to its increasing political importance. However, the main reason for this conflict between the executive and judiciary can be said to be the Constitutional Reform Act (2005) and the Human Rights Act (2000). The Constitutional Reform Act was intended to represent a separation from the traditional “fusion” model of the UK Constitution and towards a “more explicit separation of powers”, The Relations between the executive and judiciary would therefore be governed by the Act itself.
SELECT COMMITTEES This is a committee which has been established by a resolution in either house for a special purpose and is usually for a limited time. It is a committee of members of Parliament which investigate and report on a particular matter. Select Committees exist in the British Parliament, as well as in other parliaments which are based on the Westminster model, such as those in Australia and New Zealand. In the United Kingdom, committees can be appointed from the House of Commons, like the Foreign Affairs Committee, from the House of Lords, like the Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee, or as a "Joint Committee" drawn from both, such as the Joint Committee on House of Lords Reform. The Commons Select Committees are generally responsible for overseeing the work of government departments and agencies, whereas those of the Lords look at general issues, such as the constitution or the economy.
How can he help it?” The constitutional role of the judiciary is to apply the law that parliament makes, as said by Lord Diplock, “Parliament makes the laws, the judiciary interpret them/” However, judges have the power to change the rules or make new rules through precedent or statutory interpretation, as mentioned in R v Sigsworth (1935) by Lord Denning, “We fill in the gaps.” In England and Wales the courts operate a very rigid doctrine of precedent which has the effect that every court is bound by the decisions made by courts above it in the hierarchy and in general courts are bound by their own past decisions. The doctrine of Precedent is the process whereby judges should follow previous decisions in similar cases to help maintain a degree of consistency in the way the law is applied in similar cases. It is based on the maxim “stare decisis” which means stand by what has been decided. The Ratio Decidendi (reasons for deciding) is the binding part of a judge’s decision, but how judges interpret this can vary, thus changing the impact it can have on future decisions. The obiter dicta (things said by the way) though not binding can still be used as persuasive precedent and so a
 Differing interpretations of this decree are the basis for the various theories of the court's foundation. One of the original interpretations was that this decree created the King's Court and the Court of Common Pleas came into existence after the signing of the Magna Carta.  However, in the 20th century, legal historians had greater access to historical documents were able to come
Judicial Creativity Under the theory of separation of power, Parliament makes UK law while the role of judges is to apply the law to the cases. However, in reality, do judges make/develop the law? Like Lord Radcliffe said in 1968 “there was never a more sterile controversy than upon the question whether a judge makes law. Of course, he does. How can he help it?” Judges in the UK do develop the law through both the operation of the doctrine of judicial precedent and statutory interpretation.
Primarily, the court systems of the two countries are grouped into several different levels of adjudication from the central to local levels. Secondary, both court system has two levels of adjudication is the first instance and appellate cases are divided into criminal and civil cases. Furthermore, both of the court system applies the appointment to judges. However, the populations of the systems differ greatly in the independence and operating principles of the courts and there is an important difference in their composition. Firstly, in the United Kingdom, parliament is the legislative body is also the highest authority in the court system of the United Kingdom, senate performing the trial through the appellate committee of the senate, parliament became the final level trial for all criminal and civil in the UK whereas in Vietnam, state power is unified, with the assignment and coordination among state agencies in the implementation of legislative, executive and judiciary.