Both are important goals in communicative language teaching, but fluency became the main goal of speaking activities. Learners’ competence has been shifted from linguistic competence, the tacit knowledge of language to communicative competence, the explicit use of the language. Classroom activities were also restructured to match communicative language teaching’s objectives for fluency. Accuracy activities like repetition, drill and memorization in which language is learned by hard and emphasis is given on acquiring
Often times using figurative language can help your audience understand with more clarity. In the article Cultivating Writers the author states “Creating original figurative language kindles the analogical imagination” (Nelson, 2012). This enables the audience to recreate what you are describing. There are several types of figurative languages that can be used. An idiom is a form of figurative speech that is known by a particular group.
4 Phonetics and Phonology key concepts Articulatory phonetics, phonetic symbols Consonants, approximants, vowels Syllables, feet Phonology, phonemes, allophones, phonological rules i n t ro d u c t i o n In this chapter we sketch the pronunciation system of English. We begin with phonetics, a system for describing and recording the sounds of language objectively. Phonetics provides a valuable way of opening our ears to facets of language that we tend to understand by reference to their written rather than their actual spoken forms. Phonology concerns itself with the ways in which languages make use of sounds to distinguish words from each other. Teachers should be knowledgeable about the phonetics and phonology of English because (1) the sound system is primary and the basis for the spelling system; (2) they may have to teach English pronunciation to students who are not native speakers of English; (3) they may have to teach poetry, which requires that they teach about rhyme, alliteration, assonance, and other poetic devices that manipulate sound; (4) it is important to understand accents and language variation and to react appropriately to them and to teach appropriate language attitudes about them to students (see our chapters on Language and Society and Usage in Book II); (5) we are so literate that we tend to “hear” the sounds of our language through its spelling system, and phonetics/phonology provides a corrective to that; and (6) phonetics and phonology provide systematic and well-founded understandings of the sound patterns of English.
And this requires good practice involving pilot tests. The writing section requires a more serious approach. To perform its tasks requires not only knowledge of grammar and spelling. Candidate must learn to logically express their thoughts in writing and structure the text
Paper 1-Passages for Comment Steps to comment on a passage In English language the "ability to read with understanding written material in a variety of form, and to comment on its effectiveness" can help us explore them and question why they exist in the first place. The passage must be analysed carefully and points made. The usual structure for a simple commentry goes something like this: 1. Identifying the genre of the passage, i.e. [Fiction] mystery, historical, supernatural, romance, science fiction, war, human interest, adventure, crime, or [Non-fiction] biography, autobiography, travel, history, geography... 2.
Planning can help you to formulate ideas and to ensure that the structure of your final essay is logical and appropriate to the essay title. There is many different way of planning that I use such as drawing pictures, making lists, brainstorming, using graphic organizers. Planning is important because it make the writing easier when I plan what I’m going to talk about. Also in the article by Berkenkotter which she did study and experiment on Donald M. Murray to see how perfitonal academics and she found that planning is important process in Murray writing Strategy. “Some of the more provocative findings of this study concern the sub-processes of planning and revising that have not been observed in conventional protocols”.
- Flexibility: to take the innitiative in a conversation and to adapt to new topic or changes of direction. - Fluency: It is the smooth joining-up of elements an acceptable speed of delivery. Fluent speaking is the smooth joining of fluent pronunciation and fluent expression of ideas. • Lack of hesitation • Independence • Length b. Language functions The speaking test requires Ss to take part in oral interaction which may involve the following language functions: - Expressing: thanks, requirements, opinions, comments, attitudes, confirmation, apology, want/need, informations, complaints, reasons/justifications.
However, sometimes the terms switch, switch point, or switching will be used informally while referring to the cooccurrence of fragments from different languages in a sentence. Of course, it will also be necessary to separate cases of code-mixing from lexical borrowing. The term language interaction will be used occasionally as a very general cover term for different, frequently highly innovative, results of language contact, both involving lexical items (as in code-mixing) and otherwise (e.g. phonological or syntactic interference). In most models portraying the functioning of the speaker/listener, pictures we carry in our minds or see portrayed in a textbook, a single grammar and a single lexicon are embedded in the network of relations that constitutes the model.
For one thing, to write a good composition, we must collect and arrange writing materials systematically so that we can show off what is essential and what is not so important. In the process of dealing with materials, we are also learning to analyze and deal with the different problems. For another, it is also a process to practice our own thinking ability and form different thoughts. By dealing with all kinds of compositions, we can get in touch with more thoughts and become wiser. In a word, writing is an important skill, especially for language learners.