In general, both children and adults with sickle cell anemia are more vulnerable to infections. This vulnerability is the result of spleen, the organ that filters blood, damage from sickled erythrocytes. Spleen damage prevents the organ from destroying bacteria in the blood. All individuals with the disease, especially young children, are susceptible to bacterial infections such as sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis (Bindon, 2004). Pneumococcal infections was the principal cause of death in children with sickle cell anemia until physicians began routinely giving penicillin on a preventive basis to those who are diagnosed at birth or in early infancy (Bownas, 2000).
There is also a drug called hydroxyurea. This is used in severe cases and what it does is make fetal hemoglobin, which is the type of hemoglobin newborn babies have in their blood stream. This fetal hemoglobin cuts down on red blood cells from forming a crescent shape, therefore leading to less blood blockages, and longer cell life. Another treatment is a bone marrow transplant. In this procedure bone marrow is transplanted from a healthy donor to the affected individual.
• Although lupus can strike men and women of all ages, 90 percent of individuals diagnosed with the disease are women. Most people will develop lupus between the ages of 15-44. • Systemic lupus accounts for approximately 70 percent of all cases of lupus. In approximately half of these cases, a major organ, such as the heart, lungs, kidneys or brain, will be affected. Cutaneous lupus (affecting only the skin) accounts for approximately 10 percent of all lupus cases.
The patient may be given a medication to help them relax during the procedure. The patient will then be placed on an X-ray machine over a bolster to help open up the spaces between the bones in the back. An X-ray will be obtained to verify the proper level for the injection. The skin will be cleaned and prepared for the injection. The skin will then be injected with a medication to numb the area.
Sonographers begin by explaining the procedure to the patient and recording any medical history that may be relevant to the condition being viewed. They then select appropriate equipment settings and direct the patient to move into positions that will provide the best view. To perform the exam, sonographers use a transducer, which transmits sound waves in a cone-shaped or rectangle-shaped beam. Although techniques vary by the area being examined, sonographers spread a special gel on the skin to aid the transmission of sound waves. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010) Viewing the screen during the scan, sonographers look for subtle visual cues that contrast healthy areas with unhealthy ones.
The most common ions in a human body, Sodium and chloride make up salt, which is lost in irreplaceable amount via sweat of individuals with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis can be diagnosed via different methods such as amniotic fluid analysis, newborn screening, and genetic testing. Chest physiotherapy by the use of ThAIRapy Vest and the intrapulmonary percussive ventilator (IPV) are widely being used by respiratory therapist. Also, aerosolized antibiotics help to decrease the density of secretions. Tracheostomy, transplantation, surgery (new born), Biphasic Cuirass ventilation, and etc., are few of the latest developments used to care a person diagnosed with cystic
Therefore, most individuals are diagnosed after symptoms give the clue an evaluation for cystic fibrosis is needed. The most commonly used form of testing is the sweat test. Sweat-testing involves application of a medication that stimulates sweating. The sweat is then collected on filter paper or in a capillary tube and analyzed for irregular amounts of sodium and chloride. People with CF have increased amounts of sodium and chloride in their
Sickle cell anemia: What Causes Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle Cell and Haemoglobin S Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition. People with sickle cell anemia inherit two copies of the sickle cell gene, one from each parent. The sickle cell gene makes abnormal haemoglobin called haemoglobin-S. In sickle cell anemia, the abnormal haemoglobin (Haemoglobin-S) sticks together when it gives up its oxygen to the tissues.
Along the time, it builds up causing damage to your kidneys, nerves, heart, eyes and other organs. One out every three people with diabetes is unaware they have this condition. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes, is most commonly diagnosed in people under the age of 20, this is not always the case, and it is often also linked to being overweight. Research at the Harvard School of Public Health showed that the single best predictor of type 1 diabetes is being obese or overweight. Although, the primary risk factor for type 1 diabetes is family history of the lifelong chronic disease.
In order for someone to have sickle cell anemia they must inherit the gene from both their mother and their father. It is possible for someone to have the sickle cell genetic code but not experience any symptoms, and that is because their body also produces normal red blood cells. In class we had discussed genetic counseling, and because sickle cell anemia is inherited, those who have had loved ones diagnosed with this should seek some sort of genetic counseling to see if they are at risk of