Determination of Transition Metals through Chromatography Experiment 19 Chem 102-523 By: William Millet* Lab Partner: Geary Evans Introduction Pollution in an environment is a serious problem caused by both inorganic and organic materials. Certain transition metals can be pollutants, but these metals do not biodegrade over a certain time period. One way to determine the types of inorganic pollutants in a body of water is through the process of paper chromatography. In this experiment, the student uses chromatography paper to identify two types of transition metal ions in a water sample. Materials and Methods In this experiment, there are three main parts and a variety of chemicals required to achieve a desired result.
Chromatography uses the flow of solvent or gas to cause the components of a mixture to move differently from a starting point in a specific medium. Paper chromatography uses capillary action to pull the solutes up through the paper thus separating the solutes. In this experiment the medium will be paper and there will be water used as the solvent. Chromatography is used to purify and isolate the substances that make up the mixture without changing them. The result of the purification will be a
Hydrometallurgy to Analyze a Chromite Sample : Chromium can be used in the production of stainless steel and other nonferrous alloys in order to enhance their harden ability and to make the alloys more resistant to corrosion and oxidation. It can also be used to plate metals, make pigments, process leather, catalyze, and treat surfaces. Chromite is the only ore of chromium. Chromite is iron magnesium chromium oxide. Metallurgy can be used in order to recover the chromium from the chromite ore.
Each of these types of reactions behaves in a similar fashion. They all involve the conversion of one substance to another substance, while preserving the original elements in some form. Another aspect of predicting products is the chart of reactivity. In order for the replacement of an element in a compound to happen, the element replacing the original element must be more reactive. The chart of reactivity tells chemists the comparable reactivity of elements.
Physical Measurements and Properties: Essential Tools for Lab Objective: The objective of this laboratory experiment was to be able to measure different substances and determine its physical measurements and properties. Introduction: All surrounding us there are many different substances and those substances are identified according to its physical and chemical properties (Lab Manual). The field of chemistry and medicine involves being able to determine measurements as well as physical properties. These concepts play a major role in these professions. A part of making a measurement is distinguishing its unit, whether its inches, centimeters, liters, or meters.
The property or power of conducting heat, electricity, or sound” and is used as such in chemistry (Dictionary, 2014). In the medical field however, specialists are now trying to use carbon nanotubes (CNT’s) to aid in the absorption of medicines used to treat terminal illnesses, it is also used in gels, EKG, EEG and other testing supplies (Shao, 2013). The lab test today is going to help determine whether a substance is Conductive and the type of bond in portrays—ionic, polar covalent, or non-polar covalent, with a series of tests and results using an array of samples. If water is used as a solvent then sodium chloride, calcium sulfate, potassium aluminum sulfate, potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, copper (II) nitrate, and sucrose will be dissolved because they are soluble solids with ionic and polar bonds placed into a polar covalent liquid. Glycerin and ethanol will be miscible in water as well due to their polar bonds.
Then by filtering, iodide can be extracted which when combined with other substances can make an iodine tincture, that is a pharmaceutical product. * Can a single substance be isolated from a mixture? Yes a single substance can be isolated from the seaweed mixture by using methods such as filtration and evaporation. In our experiment we used filtration using a filter paper funnel to extract the iodide from the tincture. * What is this substance This substance is iodide Confidence Report The aim of extraction, is to separate a part of raw material, using a solvent such as water with heat.
This type of extractive metallurgy is called hydrometallurgy. First, the metal must be extracted by dissolving the metal in a solvent, and then the metal is removed from the solution. The waste materials are thrown out. Leeching, separating the waste and purifying the solution attained by leeching, and precipitating either the metal or a pure compound derived from the leech solution are necessary for this process of hydrometallurgy. Through these processes and skills, the chemical composition of the unknown sample can be determined.
It has been noticed that it has a specific medical treatment in such a way it will treat that type of infection or dieses. Chelation therapy is normally used to treat metal poisoning. These metal poisoning include lead, acute mercury, iron, arsenic, uranium, plutonium and other forms of poisoning metal. Depending on the type of the poison and the type of agent, biological chelation therapy agents will be administered or injected either intramuscularly or intravenously. Each and every time testing urine for metals one must make sure that she/he tests it before injection or administration of any chelation therapy agent.
Each exhibits unique chemical reactivity. These molecules will react with atmospheric moisture or water adsorbed on a surface to form silanols, while liberation of the corresponding by-product will occur (e.g., HCl, NH3, alcohol or carboxylic acid). These silanols can then react with other silanols to form a stable siloxane bond (-Si-O-Si-). In the presence of hydroxyl groups at the surface of glass, minerals or metals (e.g., aluminum, steel), silanols will form a stable M–O-Si bond (M = Si, Al, Fe, etc.). This is the key chemistry that allows silanes to function as valuable surface-treating or “coupling”