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4 Social and Cultural Foundations Society is the sworn enemy of mental health. Andrew Salter, Father of Conditioned Reflex Therapy 101. America has been called the most diverse country on the face of our planet. Counseling a client from a different social and/or cultural background is known as cross-cultural counseling, . multicultural counselin,. intercultural counseling. Some research indicates that clients from minorities have been misdiagnosed, misunderstood, and found counseling less helpful than those from the majority culture. Clients from minority cultures tend to seek out counseling less 88 Encyclopedia of Counseling and drop out sooner. Nevertheless, a culturally competent counselor can be successful regardless of the client s background. Thus, this is an important area of study. The ACA division that deals explicitly with this topic is the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD). The division is intended to raise cultural, racial, and ethnic understanding and empathy. Multicultural counseling that emphasizes respect for differences has been dubbed as the fourth force of counseling theory. Key exam hint: The term multicultural implies that we champion the idea of celebrating diversity. Some exams use the term cultural pluralism in an identical manner; however, some students are thrown a curve ball when they discover that cultural pluralism can also imply that a certain group (e.g., women, the disabled, senior citizens etc.) has special needs. 102. Culture refers to: customs shared by a group which distinguish it from other groups, values shared by a group that are learned from others in the group, attitudes, beliefs, art, and language which characterize members of a group. Hint: The term macroculture or majority culture on comprehensive exams refers to the dominant culture or the culture that is accepted by the majority of citizens

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