The series of wars between the European Christians and the Muslims, which was called the crusades, made Europe more aware about art, math, technology, etc…. The period that followed the crusades was called the renaissance, which was a period o cultural and technological innovation. This was a huge difference from the previous which was called the dark ages because there was almost no cultural or technological innovation. Another change that occurred during this time was the protestant reformation. Martin Luther started this reformation by posting his 95 thesis to the door of the church.
Henry VIII vs. John Calvin in the Protestant Reformation In the sixteenth century, stood the reformation of the Catholic Church in Western Europe. While the main focus was an internal renovation of the church, the outcome was much different than expected; the reformation led to a revolt against and an abandonment of principal Christian belief. The difference in the view and act of oneself was different from individual to individual during the reformation. While Calvin left for Geneva in 1536 from France because of the fear of persecution for the publically spread beliefs of his about the Church to the people, Henry VIII had manipulated the church for a way to receive a new wife in hopes for his first son. Different motivation stands for each of these people in what they did for the reformation.
This act of nailing his Thesis to the church door has become a symbolic defining moment of the birth of the Protestant Reformation. * In conclusion, Martin Luther was disillusioned with the Church of Rome because of the unbiblical behavior of church officials, the sale of indulgences, and the amount of power given by the Church to its hierarchy. Luther became a prominent theologian; his desire for people to feel closer to God led him to translate the Bible into the language of the people, radically changing the relationship between church leaders and their followers.
He believed that the Catholic church was corrupt for selling indulgences as penance for sins in that the sale was a way for the Church to exploit the unfortunate and poor (Reformation 5). The final push for the need to change was the English reformation. During King Henry VIII’s rule in the sixteenth century, the Church of England was formed. He established the church because the Pope of the Catholic Church would not grant him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. The Anglican church had many similarities to the Catholic church: similar rituals and a bible titled the Book of Common Prayere (Reformation 9).
The Renaissance monarchs were growing impatient of the Church, and society was growing to become more humanistic and secular, as well as individualism. Various other religions were established as well, with Luther’s teachings leaving their mark well past Luther’s own existence. The Reformation in Western & Central Europe officially began in 1517 with Martin Luther (1483-1546) and his 95 Theses. This was a debate over the Christian religion. Luther’s arguments referred to a direct relationship with God and using the local vernacular to speak to the people.
Most of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church were dogma that could not be challenged or refused by Christians of the middle ages. And as it were, those teachings which forced down the throats of the people. Between 1170 and 1498 AD the glimpse of religious light began to shoot over the age, foretokens of the coming of the reformation. Before these tokens the papacy office became more involved in politics, they claimed to be more superior to the kings. The major concern was money in the Roman Catholic Church.
The people conquered by charlemegne , after being converted to christianty, were taught through the bible of codes that taught right and wrong. It was nesscary for the church to play a role in this education of the people, because only the clergy were educated. The church also guided charlemagene’s hand as a ruler, for he took on many conquests and missions so this way the Christian relgion could spread throught Europe. Indeed, his desire and passionate to spread his kingdom and government was interwined with his desire to spread the Christian relgion and have the people live according to the word of god. At that beginning of the caroligian dynasty the church was suffering from problems.
Urban rejected the authority of the new pope and so now there was a division between France and Rome on who controlled the papacy. A church council was called in 1409 which denounced the power of both popes and elected a third. But neither of the two original popes would step down, so now there were three popes. Finally, as people got used to the idea of a church council, another one was held which removed the current three popes and put in a forth. Although the whole situation was solved, all of Europe began to question the real authority of the
With Protestantism growing ever since introduced, and many challenges against the church, the Catholic authorities responded in different ways in order to keep Protestantism from growing and correcting it of its mistakes at the Council of Trent (1545-1563). In one of the responses of the Catholic authorities to the Lutheran Reformation was the
Artists from both periods impacted their craft but it was the artists of the Renaissance who widened their scope for expressing art and truly created change for future generations. A1 After the fall of the mighty Roman Empire in 400A.D, a new period called the Medieval era or the “Dark Ages” lasted for approximately one thousand years. Many people in this time were scared for their safety, illiterate, and were in a constant state of searching for truth (MindEdge, Inc., 2014). That truth was in the form of religion they believed; Christianity, especially Catholicism, was sweeping Europe during this time. Religion had always had some influence in art but with the increasing popularity of the Christian faith, especially Catholicism, its influence had never been greater (Lane, 1998).