University Of Phoenix 09 Sexual Response Cycle Sexual Response occurs in four different stages. According to Masters and Johnson, they are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. It is also characterized by vasocongestion or the engorgement of blood vessels with blood making the genitals and breast swell during the arousal state; the next is myotonia or muscle tension. This causes facial expressions, spasms in the hands and feet, and orgasms. Excitement The first phase is the excitement stage, by which an erection of the penis occurs in males and vaginal lubrication occurring in females.
3: Understand the potiential effects of transistions on children and young people. 3.1: Identify transistions expeirenced by most children and young people I feel that a main transisition expieirenced by most children is Starting school as a child grows up, their intellectial ability as well as their communication will also develop. They will be able to become more socialable and learn through the diffrent techques used in the school such as play time where thair able to learn practically and then through the currriculam. I feel that that starting school is a big transistion due to being able to expierence a certain amount of independance. Another big transistion that most children or young person will expieirence is a birth of a sibling the reason why i believe this is a transistion is because they are adapting to a new situation which could either cause happiness or a eliment of jelousy.
Although all children will develop at different rates and in different ways, the sequence in which they develop will be roughly the same as they need to have developed one skill, for example walking, before they move on to develop another such as running and jumping. Development is often referred to on a timeline and is broken down in ages. As development is more rapid in early years the milestones start by being quite close together before becoming further apart as baby becomes a child and then a young adult. The aspects of development that children are measured on are physical, language, social and emotional, and intellect. From birth through to adulthood children continually grow, develop, and learn.
Boys are less verbal than girls. Around age 3, boys start to develop abdominal muscle and stomach starts to tighten and at this stage girls add fat. The increase of height occurs more rapidly with girls than with boys. The average from the age of two to seven will have slower growth spurts than earlier years. The rate of growth averages from two ½ inches and seven pounds per year for this age group (Rella, 1999-2012).
This paper will discuss the important stages in the development as to how the child changes from physical, emotional, social, and cognitive perspective throughout this time period. Physical Change Physical changes in early childhood are accompanied by rapid changes in the child’s cognitive and language development. From the beginning of birth they use all their senses to attend to their environment. They begin to develop a sense of cause and effect from their actions and the responses of caregivers. As the new born grows into a young person he can take care of his or her own body and interact effectively with others.
The growth rate of children is for the most part controlled by the hormones produced from the thyroid and pituitary glands. Larger amounts of the thyroid hormone are hidden in the first two years of life and stay constant at a lower level until the adolescent years. “During early childhood year’s low levels of secretions from the ovaries or testes and the adrenal androgens are released (Tanner, 1990). Around the childhood age of 7-8 the first hormonal changes begin, the pituitary gland starts to release higher levels of gonadotrophic hormones. “This begins to stimulate the development of glands in male’s testes that release the hormone testosterone and in female’s ovaries that release a form of estrogen called estradiol (Tanner, 1990), the so-called sex hormones.
* The birth-rate is a history of fluctuations. * There was a fall in birth rate during first world war followed by a baby boom with births peaking at 1.1million in 1920. * The was a low rate during interwar period and then another baby boom after second world war * In 2006 the birth rate was the highest in 26 years. * There are a number of reasons why the birthrate in 21st century is lower than in 1901 * A major decline in infant mortality rate (the number of children dying at birth in the first year of life per 1000) * This began because of improvements of sanitation , water supplies and nutrition. * As standards of living increased and childhood came to be seen as a special period , therefore sizes of families were limited.
Therefore, parents create an environment that actively outlines the children’s gender roles throughout their childhood (Susan, 2007). Children’s sense of mushrooming, or self – acknowledgement, is usually as a result of multiple ideas, attitudes, believes and behaviors which they are exposed to on a daily basis. Children gather information that comes within the family dome through the interactions with their parents. This is achieved through bolstering of preferred behaviors, parental approval and disapproval and role modeling (Berk, 2013). Through these parent-children interactions as they develop, they learn gender stereotype behaviors.
If trust develops successfully, the child gains confidence and security in the world around him and is able to feel secure even when threatened. Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result in an inability to trust, and therefore an sense of fear about the inconsistent world. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Between the ages of one and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.
Do Early life experiences affect Development? Angel Tresco PS300: Research Methods I Unit 9 Assignment There are those that say that even as infants our sensory experiences begin to shape us, and that the effect of our environment gets stronger over time. We are born with given genetics which of course cannot be changed it is how we are ‘wired’. Learning and experience some say will shape how children develop. Whether or not a child’s emotional, nutritional, intellectual, and medical needs are met all play a very important role in the development of a child and in turn who they become as an adult.