P1: Explain the Principal Sociological Perspectives

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P1: Explain the principal sociological perspectives Functionalism: This is a sociological approach that sees the institutions of society as working in synchronisation with each other, making specific and strong contributions to the smooth running of society. This approach can be best understood by linking society to the human body. Just as the body functions through the efficient interrelationship of major organs (such as the lungs, heart, liver and kidneys) and has mechanisms to deal with disease so the different institutions in society each have particular contributions to make. The family socialise you by teaching you how to behave and demonstrating values and norms such as saying please and thank you, learning to be patient and standing in a queue, being honest, truthful and respecting each other and also religion is a major aspect in determining how an individual behaves as religion can teach a person how to act and speak also. Peer groups are another influence in how a person behaves and this is because a peer group will mould you in a specific way on how to communicate with different people so for example a peer group might teach an individual to curse and swear whilst talking to friends as a joke but that individual wouldn’t communicate that way to their parents they may be more formal and polite in order to avoid trouble and disappointing them. Marxism: Marxism is another sociological approach which believes that a person’s place or status in society depends on the economic society. Karl Max (1818-1883) held the view that in his time there were two social classes, the bourgeoisie/capitalists and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie (ruling class) were a small but powerful group who owned the factories and other places of employment. Whereas the proletariat were labelled as the ‘working class’ and were the larger but poorer mass of society and were the

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