Although statistics show that the highest ethnicity whom over achieves in education are Chinese people, it is still very debatable for other ethnicity’s whether the schools process affects their attainment. Bowker doesn’t believe that the processes in school are mainly responsible for ethnic differences in attainment. He assumes it’s due to the cultural deprivation ethnic minorities’ face. Factors like intellectual and linguistic skills creates a huge barrier to the UK education, as ethnic minorities normally lack a standard of English, this is normally due to the fact that English isn’t their first language because it may not always be the language spoke at home thus leading them to gain a poor attainment in school as they face a double burden of attempting to learn English whilst also having to understand the syllabus taught. On the other hand, Gilbon recognises the processes committed in school which create the ethnic differences in attainment, he found that Afro-Caribbean boys were often labelled “unruly” “disrespectful”, they were also more likely to be given detentions than other pupils.
Bernstein’s early work comes close with being a ‘cultural deficit’ model. Although Bernstein is sometimes accused of claims he never actually made, his early writings do seem to make a negative judgement on the ‘restricted code’. Murray from the New Right perspective has more recently pursued the theme of the development of an underclass culture. The poorest stratum in society have a distinct set of values which stem from high rates of illegitimacy, single parenthood, welfare dependency, poor socialisation of children. This cultural deprivation which Murray controversially links to lower IQ levels, is seen as creating a group of pupils who are fundamentally alienated from the education system.
Some sociologists believe that cultural factors are the most important cause of social differences in educational achievement, but this is not the only factor that causes a difference, Material Depravation can affect educational achievement in other ways. There are three main factors of Cultural Deprivation: Intellectual development, Language and Attitudes and Values. Sociologists such as JWB Douglas (1964) and Herbert Hyman (1967) believe that cultural deprivation factors are the most important cause for social class difference in educational achievement. Douglas found that working-class pupils scored on average, lower than those from a middle-class background. He argues that this is due to working-class parents being less likely to support and encourage their child’s intellectual development at home, therefore they are intellectually deprived compared to the middle-class pupils they are at school with.
For example, Wright (1992) found that teachers perceived and treated minority ethnic pupils differently from white pupils. Afro-Caribbean boys were often expected to behave badly and they received a disproportionate amount of negative teacher attention. Other sociologists claim that non-school factors such as family structure and home background have a greater impact on the educational achievement of different ethnic groups. Assess the claim that ‘ethnic differences in educational achievement are primarily the result of school factors’ (20 marks) Patterns of ethnic achievement are complex, cross-cut by gender and social class. For example Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi students do worst compared to Indians and Chinese who do best.
Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that ethnic differences in achievement are primarily the result of home background factors It is the common belief that home background factors affect achievement for people of different ethnicities; the belief is that White and Asian people achieve higher than black people. Home background factors consist of Cultural and Material deprivation. Cultural deprivation (CD) means inadequate socialisation in the home, this means that children who are culturally deprived lack the correct norms and values needed for educational success. CD can be broken down into 3 aspects, intellectual and linguistic skills, attitudes and values and family structure. Many CD sociologists see a lack of intellectual and linguistic as a major barrier to achievement in education, this is because a lack of these skills will slow development of reasoning skills, which can disadvantage the student.
Cultural deprivation sociologists see three factors as accountable for working-class under-achievement. One such factor being the lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class families are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities that will stimulate their thinking and reasoning skills, and less likely to read them. This effects their intellectual development so that when they begin school they are at a disadvantage compared with middle-class children. Another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the restricted speech code.
Also they will have a weaker immune system causing them to miss school due to illness. They also believe material deprivation causes them to have less school resources such as books and pens so they have fewer opportunities to learn. They have no access to private schools and tuition. Pupils in private schools or having private tuition are proven to receive higher grades than those in public schools. This was supported by the National Child Development Study which found that children from low income households were an average of 9 months behind in their education compared to others.
On the one hand it could be said that it is down to discrimination in schools that there is evidence of ethnic differences in educational achievement. One example of discrimination in schools is labelling and teacher racism. Interactionists focus on the different labels teachers give to children from different ethnic backgrounds. Their studies show that teachers often see black and Asian pupils as being far from the ‘ideal pupil’. For example black pupils are often seen as disruptive.
Just as some Hispanic students have difficulty getting help with their homework because there is not an English speaker at home to offer assistance. Minority students are more likely to come from low income households and poorer living areas resulting in the minority student to be more likely to attend poorly funded schools based on the districting patterns within the school system. Schools in lower income districts tend to employ less qualified 2 teachers and have fewer educational resources compared to students coming from middle and upper class families and homes. Many states have initiated several strategies to close the achievement gaps among children. Achievement gaps are being closely
“Despite these successes, however, many students are failed by the educational system. Black youth have a high drop-out/push-out rate. Further, many black students who are physically present in schools, are disengaged in both mind and soul.” From my own knowledge, I strongly disagree with the author’s statement. Why does the author think that when the black students drop-out schools? Some black students might quit schools because of racial segregation reasons; however, these reasons cannot increase the drop-out rates among black students.