The cardiovascular system also responds by redistributing blood to the heart, brain and kidneys and keeping blood away from the skin, muscle and GI tract. The renal system responds to the shock by increasing renin secretion from the juxtaglomerular apparatus. The neuroendocrine system responds hypovolemic shock by stimulating an increase in ADH. ADH is released in correspondence to low blood pressure and decrease in sodium concentration. The symptoms previous to hypovolemic shock include confusion and weakness.
Stress is a subjective experience between a person and their environment caused by stressors, for example, exams and relationships. There are many studies that have found that stress could actually affect the efficiency of the immune system. The immune system is a system of cells within the body that defends the body from antigens. White blood cells, also known as leucocytes, are the cells made in the bone marrow that defend the body against infection and illness. Most studies focusing on acute stressors have found a decrease in immune cell function while others have shown an increase, for example, Fischer (1972) found higher lymphocyte counts in Apollo astronauts during the splashdown, suggesting that acute stress could actually lead to an increase in immune system activity.
There has been a lot of research that suggests that the immune system can be severely affected by stress. Kiecolt-Glaser did an experiment to evaluate the effect of acute stressors on the immune system. She had a group of students who were about to have their medical exams. She took the blood sample one month before the exams and another during the exam period. She measured the NK cell activity to see how the immune system was effected and found that the NK cell activity had dropped significantly in the second blood sample that had been taken shows that stress had caused to lower the efficiency of the immune system and made the students were vulnerable to stress-related illnesses.
The autonomic nervous system is made up of two subsystems, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The systems transmit messages to and from organs in the body. They also control the basic life processes such as breathing and digestion. The adrenal glands are controlled by the endocrine system. Adrenal glands release the hormone adrenaline into the body.
This causes the anterior pituitary gland to produce and secrete a hormone (adrenocorticotropic hormone) that travels through the circulatory system. When the hormone reaches the adrenal cortex it binds to a cell-surface receptor, which signals the synthesis and release of cortisol. Answer B: A tropic hormone stimulates the synthesis and secretion of a hormone by another endocrine gland. The releasing hormone secreted by the hypothalamus stimulates the release of a hormone by the anterior pituitary, so it is a tropic hormone. The hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates the secretion of a hormone by the adrenal cortex, so it is also a tropic hormone.
The immune system is a collection of billions of cells that travel through the bloodstream; there are B cells and T cells. If your stress is short term, it wont affect your immune system at all, however if it long term/chronic, it can leave your body being vulnerable to infection and disease. Stress responses increase strain upon the circulatory system due to an increased heart rate, which could lead to the person having difficulties with their heart and circulation. This could lead to the person having coronary heart disease. People with the personality type A are more likely to suffer with CHD.
The brain stem (midbrain pons and medulla oblongata) Controls involuntary reflex actions The cerebellum Maintains posture and co-ordinates movement. It received messages from the cerebrum and muscles and joints The diencephalon (includes the thalamus and hypothalamus Controls homeostatic mechanisms and the autonomic nervous system The cerebrum The largest part of the brain, divided into three areas that control movement, interpret sensory impulses and control of thought, memory, emotions and personality traits Nerves Nerves are compiled of neurons or nerve cells. These cells can vary in structure this depends on two different things: 1. Where they are 2. What they do But all cells have cell body’s containing the nucleus.
These three are naturally occurring chemicals in the human body. These chemicals mainly affect the emotional well being of a person. Dopamine: affects brain processors. These processors control movement and emotional responses to different stimulus, such as pleasure or pain. Having the exact right amount of dopamine plays a crucial part in our physical and emotional health Serotonin: is a hormone neurotransmitter.
Rates of steroid abuse are growing and people don't realize the danger that comes along with the massive gain in muscle and strength when using steroids. Use of these drugs can cause serious injury and in some cases death. Steroids can affect an athlete's or person's health when taking them. Not everyone experiences these side effects but steroids have been known to cause the following: liver, prostate, and kidney cancer, reduction of HDL Cholesterol, high blood pressure, aggressive behavior, aching joints, injury to tendons, ligaments, and muscles, acne on face, back, and other areas of the body, reduced sperm count, heart arrhythmia, increased sex drive, and many other side effects, some being more serious
Outline and evaluate the body’s response to stress The body responds to stress by releasing chemicals into our blood to give us a boost to do whatever needs to be done to survive, one way to describe what happens is to use Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). Stage 1: Alarm When something is perceived as stressful and the HPA axis and SAM pathways are activated, the body releases stress-related hormones such as adrenaline, the heart rate and blood pressure increases, this is to give us a boost to either run away or face the stressor head-on, (otherwise known as the “fight or flight response”. Stage 2: Resistance If the stressor persists the body’s response carries on, and stress-related hormones continue to be released, and the arousal remains. Stage 3: Exhaustion If the stress persists for a long period of