Outline & Evaluate Research Into Cross Cultural Variations in Attachment (12 Marks)

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Outline & evaluate research into cross cultural variations in attachment (12 marks) A01 Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg 1988 did a cross cultural study to look at variations in attachment. They used the strange situation study to observe attachment types (secure, avoidant and ambivalent) across countries/cultures. They reviewed 32 worldwide studies involving eight countries including: Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands, Sweden, Israel, Japan, China and USA with over 200 infants between 12 – 18 months as they must be mobile. The study has two aims: separation anxiety, stranger anxiety, the secure based concept and quality of attachment. The attachment was measured by separation protest, stranger anxiety, willingness to explore, reunion behaviour. These studies had been conducted by other researchers; Kroonenberge et al were looking for general trends. The study showed that the three main types of attachment still applied, but the percentages of each varied greatly across cultures, also the overall worldwide pattern was similar to Ainsworth et al ‘standard’ pattern. This was also true of the 18 American studies however there was variation within them. The standard pattern shows type B to be most common however type A and B were not evenly distributed between the rest of the infants. However in the Japanese studies in one there was no type A at all and a high distribution of type C. In Germany secure was 56.6% insecure avoidant 35.3% and insecure resistant 8.1%. In the UK secure was 75% insecure avoidant 22.2% and insecure resistant 2.8%. In Israel secure was 64.4% insecure avoidant 6.8% and insecure resistant 28.8%. In Japan secure was 67.7% insecure avoidant 5.2% and insecure resistant 25%. AO2 In conclusion it was found that in Germany independence in children is valued, which would account for the high percentage of insecure avoidant children. As the child

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