Accuracy in eyewitness testimony The accuracy of eyewitness (EW) testimony can be affected by many psychological factors. The purpose of this essay is to outline and evaluate these different factors. Eyewitnesses usually experience anxiety during a crime, as they are exposed to potential danger. Two important things must be considered about anxiety in eyewitnesses. First of all, the level of anxiety is determinate by the threat of danger.
It can depend on the investigation being held, the place and the difficulty of being able to solve the case. The investigator mindset is to find out why the crime happen, how it could’ve been prevented, and also investigate all the evidence that was found. These concepts can associate with the optimal mindset of an investigator manifest by how much the investigator knows, how much training the investigators has, and the experience that the investigator already has. The more training and
Hence, when we study crime, it is vital to keep in mind that there are differing viewpoints within the field of criminology as to the fundamental nature of the subject matter itself. 2. How can theories help us to understand criminal behavior or to design strategies intended to control such behavior? Theory helps us to understand the world because it provides us with a fundamental pattern, which explains a variety of
This research suggests that if a person is threatened which will increase stress and anxiety levels, they are more likely to remember. Conversely a meta-analysis of 18 studies into the effects of anxiety on witness recall concluded that high levels of stress negatively impact on recall. The weapon-focus effect (Johnson and Scott 1976) suggests that the presence of a weapon can diminish accuracy in recall. In the experiment participants sat outside an experimental psychology lab, waiting to take part in an experiment. A receptionist was in the room for a short while and made an excuse to leave.
NRSv433 WEEK 4 DQ4-1 Extraneous variables may have an influence on the dependent variable. In what ways do researchers attempt to control extraneous variables? Support your answer with current literature. Extraneous Variables are undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the variables that an experimenter is examining. They exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among these variables.
It also restricts or prohibits the use of certain evidence in sexual offense cases. Conclusion It is important to know the terminology of research in criminal justice because you will have to read reports and if you do not understand what is being written you cannot effectively do your job. Effective research can assist with opening or closing of cases. Using incorrect terms or incorrect information in research can be harmful to the outcome of the question or situation at hand. The credibility of evidence relies often on the handlers, examiners, experts and presenters.
Outline and evaluate the research into eyewitness testimony. There has been a vast amount of interest into eyewitness testimony (EWT). EWT investigate the accuracy of memory following a crime or incident worth interrogating and the types of errors make in such situations. Sometimes EWT can be unreliable, which can lead to horrific consequences in a court of law. Rattner (1988) reviewed 205 cases of wrongful arrest (such as the case of Edward Honaker) and found that in 52% of cases, this was due to mistaken EWT.
Fraud investigations are often suggested in order to deem the performance prevalent and appropriate. The investigation must be performed with careful reasoning and consideration. One of the most important tactics of the investigation begins with the interview. The interview is critical as it is the initial facet of the investigation. According to Krancher, Riley & Wells, (2013), “Interviewing is the systematic questioning of a person who has knowledge of events, people, evidence, and other details surrounding a fraud or forensic accounting issue” (pg.
When discussing research methods in the criminal-justice system, a vital role has to be acted out by the researcher. Researchers should know that without the ability to conduct effective research, there would be problems in some areas of the justice system. Another area of research is the terminology that is used among law enforcement, doctors, etc. Terminology is important when being used during any type of study within the criminal-justice system. This paper will cover some of the terminology researchers may use on a daily basis and what methods could be applied to the Criminal Justice System.
Lasiuk & Hegadoren (2006) posit that this was an extremely significant event. The effects of horrific life events were named and a framework was created to use in studying PTSD. The development of PTSD was attributed to an external cause, a traumatic event, rather than to an inherent weakness in the individual. It validated and legitimized the experiences of trauma victims. It also placed them in the context of reciprocal interaction between the individual and environment, both influencing and being influenced