It has been found that the decreased alertness, as a result of shift lag, costs the USA seventy billion dollars per year. More evidence comes from the Three Mile Island nuclear power station disaster, which occurred at around 4am, and similarly the ‘Exon Val Dez’ oil tanker accident occurred at 12am and resulted in the spillage of oil in the oceans, affecting thousands of species in the wild. A second effect of shift work is believed to be the increased risk of organ disease that is associated with the number of years spent doing shift work. Knutsson et al provided supporting evidence for this, as it was found that those who spent fifteen years or more doing shift work had a higher risk of developing heart disease. A third and final effect of shift work is sleep
This is because the students she used may have a different immune system to other people. She took blood samples one month before the pupils took the exam and another during the exams. She was hoping that before the exams the pupils would be low stress and during the exams they’d have high stress. However, some of the pupils may have been stressed over other things so maybe they may have been more stressed before the exam because a family relative had just died. She measured the stress in NK cell activity.
The immune system can fail us in two ways-either by becoming under-vigilant, letting infections enters the body, or over-vigilant, so that it is the immune system itself, rather than an infectious agent that causes illness. Kiecolt Glaser et al (1984) conducted an experiment to see the effects of stress on the immune system. This was by taking blood samples of 75 medical students one month before and during their examination period. They then compared the two blood samples and found decreased leucocyte activity in the sample taken during high levels of stress (during their exams). They found high T cell activity prior to exams but low activity during exams.
Growth hormone is secreted pulses during the day but a significant amount is released during. Sassin et al found that sleep waking cycles are reversed by 12 hours, the release of the growth hormone with sleep is also reversed. This shows that growth hormone release is controlled by neural mechanisms related to SWS. Krueger et al found that the lack of SWS has been associated with reduced functioning of the immune system. The immune system consists of various protein molecules which are regenerated during cell growth and protein synthesis in SWS.
In other words the study showed a reduction in mobility difficulty of women with OA who received the treatment of GI and PMR F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005 3. The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what
A study out of Duke University suggests that Splenda, and its key component, sucralose, may harm health when consumed over time. The study, which was conducted in rats, showed that rats tested had half of the good bacteria in the gut that play a role in regulating immunity and weight. Sucralose also increased the pH level in the intestines, contributed to increases in body weight and affected the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the body that can block the effects of drugs, such as those for cancer and HIV patients, and many others. In the other hand, it is argued that splenda it is helpful for those suffering from diabetes and obesity, but that is also empty sweetness that causes the
Falls are important to be monitored due to rising cost of care for patients who have fallen, and this will help decrease the chance of harm to patients. The dashboard monitored total of patient falls per 1000 patient days per quarter. There were 4 quarters monitored during this time frame with a goal of 3.14 falls per 1000 patient days. The reported falls ranged from 0 to 9.19. The decline of falls in the third quarter of 2009 in which the goal was reached with 0 falls; however, the other three quarters the goal was not met because there was 5.97 to 9.19 reported falls.
The fathers were again assessed when their children were 21 months old. The Ruttter revised preschool scales served to measure children's emotional and behavioral development. Relevant information was available for 8431 fathers, 11,833 mothers, and 10,024 children. The likelihood of remaining in the study after 42 months was lessened by a high degree of symptomatic depression in mothers but not in fathers. EPDS scores for mothers and fathers correlated to a significant degree.
Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and stress-relates illnesses (12 marks) The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. White blood cells, also called leukocytes, are part of this defence system. There are two basic types of these germ-fighting cells; phagocytes, which chew up invading germs and lymphocytes, which allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders. Long term suppression of the immune system leaves the body vulnerable to disease and infection. For this reason it is said that stress weakens the immune system.
Lead researcher Dr. Phillip Shaw said, "If you have a certain variant of this gene, you have a greatly increased risk of having ADHD." In the second study, scientists found that ADHD is associated with lowered dopamine production. ADHD is a real disease, which can not be cured but only treated. According to Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacrology, scientist recorded a study after conducting research on the long usage of IR-MPH, which they found children who took the 10 month trial of the medicine showed decreased signs of ADHD symptoms. Jeffrey Newcorn’s scholarly journal about Pychopharmacrologic Tretment recognizes methylphenidate and detroamphetamine as both good medicines to help control the symptoms of ADHD.