Describe the main types of mental ill health according to the psychiatric (DSM/ICD) classification system: mood disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, substancerelated disorders, eating disorders, cognitive disorders. 1.2. Explain the key strengths and limitations of the psychiatric classification system. 1.3. Explain two alternative frameworks for understanding mental distress.
Or it may be useful to increase the quantity of a certain neurotransmitter so the behaviour it affects may be increased. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has been found to be involved in depression. A class of drugs called SSRIs work by stopping nerve cells reabsorbing the serotonin they have released into the synapse, thereby increasing the amount of serotonin that is available. SSRIs are a very effective treatment for depression and include drugs such as Prozac. Benzodiazepine drugs are commonly used to treat stress, anxiety and high blood pressure.
Discuss Biological Therapies for Phobic Disorders? (8+16 marks) What are phobias? Phobias are an irrational fear of a specific object or situation. A phobia is classified as a type of anxiety disorder, since anxiety is the main symptom experienced by the sufferer. Today, I’m going to be discussing the biological approach to treating phobic disorders, quite obviously in this method of treating these disorders, there are two types of chemotherapy (drugs) which are used.
GABA, the hormone responsible for anxiety relief naturally in the human body is enhanced by the BZs. The BZs will also help to reduce the serotonin activity in the brain, which is the neurotransmitter which causes arousal, and reduces anxiety as a result. Benzodiazepines have a number of effects that all lead to the reduction of stress in people without much effort. The other type of drug that could be used to treat stress and anxiety issues are Beta Blockers (BBs). When the body detects stress, the SNS is activated which leads to raised heart rate, which leads to higher blood pressure which can lead to Chronic Heart Disease, heart attack, stroke etc.
praise or increased status within group. Another risk factor that could lead to the development of an addictive behaviour is stress. Stress is positively correlated with increased vulnerability to addiction, this is because many people seek an addiction in order to relieve stress, some more prone than others. Those who become addicted to smoking for example, use the cigarettes as a way to continuously reduce stress (coping method). However stress levels may also increase due to the addiction itself, e.g.
This suggests that certain genetic factors may lead to abnormal functioning of areas of the brain causing illnesses such as OCD. In addition, there is a high concordance rate between identical twins and they are twice as likely to develop OCD if their twin has the disorder compared to non identical twins. Therefore this also shows how there are certain genes that cause OCD and that these genes may be hereditary. Another explanation for OCD is Neuroanatomical processes involving the OFC caudate nuclei loop. The loops involves the orbital frontal cortex which picks up on situations that we need to worry about and then sends this message on to the Caudate Nucleus which describes whether or not the message is important and if it deems yes, the message is passed on to the thalamus, which acts upon the received message.
Outline and evaluate the Biological model The Biological model of abnormality suggests that mental illnesses resembles physical illness and can be treated in similar ways using drugs and other forms of medication. Doctors then attempt to treat a mental illness as they would treat a physical one by treating the symptoms. The main problem with this technique would be the fact they are only treating the symptoms and not the cause of the illness which will mean the illness will not improve. This model relates to five areas which may cause mental illnesses: infection, genes, neurochemicals and neuroanatomy. Infection may be the cause of some mental illnesses e.g.
If these neurotransmitters are out of balance, the chemical messages cannot get through the brain properly. This can alter the way the brain reacts in certain situations, causing anxiety. Some parts of our brain chemistry are also involved in generalized anxiety disorder. Most notably the brains of people with generalized anxiety disorder have abnormal levels of serotonin and nor-epinephrine. The most popular treatments for generalized anxiety disorder work to correct this.
Hippocrates referred to depression as “melancholia” which translates to “black bile.” His assumption was based on the medical belief of the time that imbalances of the four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile) could account for all mental disorders. Freud later took the stance that depression developed as a result of unconscious or suppressed conflict. Since these historical accounts, the understanding of depressive disorders has progressed. A depressive disorder is now considered to involve a persistent sad mood that interferes with functioning in everyday life and causes changes in bodily functions. Common symptoms include a persistent sad or anxious mood, feelings of guilt, hopelessness, pessimism, or worthlessness, a loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, sleep disruptions, a decreased or increased appetite, fatigue, suicidal thoughts, irritability, and physical symptoms such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain (Panzarino, Schoenfield, Lee, & Sheil, 2007).
Many scientists believe that genes play a role in creating fearful memories. Also, studying certain brain area that deal with stress and fear researchers have a better understanding of curing the causes of PTSD. Symptoms of PTSD can be flashbacks, bad dreams, frightening thoughts, avoiding people, events, or object that are reminders of your experience, and feeling on edge. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and disabling brain disorder that has affected people throughout history (NIMH). People who have this disorder may hear voices that other may not hear, feel as though the world can read their mind, control their thoughts, and are out to