The cognitive explanation for OCD starts from the observation that everybody at some time has undesirable thoughts that they would be ashamed to admit (e.g. most of us worry at times about touching something dirty). The theory suggests that people with OCD have a ‘cognitive bias’, irrational thought patters. The cognitive therapy for OCD helps the individual change their irrational thinking by encouraging them to use counter-statements in order to reverse negative, irrational thinking. For example ‘if the worst happened is it true that I would not be able to handle it?’, this would enable negative and irrational thoughts to be dispelled.
Behaviourists are convinced that behaviour is determined by conditioning and this can be reinforced by positive or negative rewards. Positive rewards will ensure that the behaviour will be repeated while negative rewards will lead to ceasing of that behaviour. The early behaviourists were even claiming that if given neutral youngsters they would be able to mould them into ways of behaving suited for a particular purpose. It is here where psychoanalysts would argue that human behaviour cannot be measured or just reduced to stimulus response. Both behaviourists and psychoanalysts would deny the existence of a free will.
This scheme is called the implicit personality theory. It consists of a set of expected relations between personality traits of others, which are built up through direct experience that one has with those personality traits. Moreover, this direct experience can be both positive and negative. It is expected that positive experience with one personality trait will result in positive anticipations of other personality traits. However, it is expected that negative experience with one personality trait will result in negative anticipations of other personality traits.
Cognitive behavior therapy is based on the belief that people are born with the ability to have rational and irrational thinking, and it helps clients to accept themselves and their mistakes. They teach the client that they will continue to make mistakes and is a normal part of life. However, the psychoanalytic theory is inconsistent with these views because it is rooted in the belief that our behavior is determined by unconscious forces. Also, that sexual and death instincts are the sources of our actions and our motivation for pleasure and pain. b.)
Benefits come from belonging in a group, individuals may conform on the surface but disagree with the group internally. This is called compliance, going along with the majority despite knowing they are incorrect. Informational social influence; is powered by what people need or their motives. When people are unaware how to behave, think or feel in a social situation the need for conformity is the need to be safe. An example of psychological research in conformity is Asch (1951) line study, where there were varying amount of both participants and confederates and they were asked to state which line was bigger out of three.
Cognitive vs. Self-Perception: Comparison of Attitude Theories Planned Behavior vs. Self-Perception: Comparison of Attitude Theories Franzoi defines attitude as “a positive or negative evaluation of an object” (2010). A very simple definition for a very complex thought process. There are many theories that attempt to explain how we develop an attitude about a person, place, job, or anything else. Two of those theories are the self-perception theory and the theory of planned behavior. The self-perception theory asserts that our own behavior determines our attitude towards an object.
The theory may have some validity in its basis but the idea that it is the all-encompassing answer to mental health problems and inappropriate behaviors encourages the belief that the theory has some serious errors. Changing negative thoughts to positive thoughts can be a powerful and effective tool of change Backus refers to this change as “truth”. Changing misbeliefs to “truth” may be effective for an individual who has a normal thought process and is able to master some of the techniques prescribed in this theory. Yet, the idea of telling a clinically depressed, schizophrenic, or an obsessive-compulsive person to use the power of thought alone to change their action or state of being seems unrealistic. Backus seems to ignore the idea that behavior development is influenced by more than thought alone.
The superego is our moral authority this developed through identification of our parent’s moral rules and the social norms of society If the ego fails to balance the id and the superego this can lead to conflict and may result in a psychological disorder. If the id is not balanced by the ego and it becomes dominate this can lead to destructive tendencies and adverse pleasurable behaviour. However, if the superego becomes dominate an individual may be unable to experience any form of pleasurable gratification. This leads on to Defence mechanisms which convert unconscious impulses into more acceptable forms. For example, with displacement an impulse may be redirected away from its original target onto a more acceptable one (e.g.
How intense were the behaviors when demonstrated by the client? behaviors were very intense when demonstrated. very vivid hallucinations of three individuals who are clearly apart of his disorder. believes the soviets are an enemy and trying to harm him when they are just apart of the psychiatric ward. believes there is some type of chip in his arm and tries to dig out the chip in his arm but it really doesn't exist.
If I had to identify with a particular form of oppression it would be ableism. Ableism is “a set of practices and beliefs that assign inferior value (worth) to people who have developmental, emotional, physical or psychiatric disabilities” (Maggie, 2014). As I had mentioned earlier, I suffer from bouts of debilitating depression that render me unable to function for a period of time. Unfortunately, my boyfriend is just one of many who have dismissed my depression as laziness because they just don’t understand depression. They assume that I should be just as able-bodied as them since they can’t “see” my disability and use oppressive words like lazy and ‘no good for nothing’ which only leads to further denigration of an already awful feeling.