The diathesis-stress model, as an example of a multidimensional model, suggests that a disorder depends on two distinct factors: Diathesis: a vulnerability or pre-disposition, and stress: a severe or disabling environmental event (Eysenck, M. 2008). One-dimensional are being, in practice, replaced by multidimensional models. This essay will aim to describe and evaluate the medical model and the psychological model, specifically the psychodynamics perspective, as explanations for the causes of abnormalities. The quintessential characteristic of the medical model is that abnormal behaviours, regarded as illnesses, result from underlying physical causes; therefore should be treated medically (Gross, R. 2006). The four kinds of medical explanations are: infection, biochemistry, neuroanatomy and genetic factors.
Outline the strengths and weaknesses of the biological explanation of psychopathology The biological approach is currently the dominant approach in studying in treating psychopathology. This is carried out by psychiatrists, who qualify as medical doctors before specialising in psychiatry. They tried to apply the medical model to psychological disorders, identifying biological aspects of this disorder and using physical treatments, such as drugs. According to the biological approach of abnormality, psychopathology has an underlying physical cause. Abnormality is associated with change in brain or bodily functions.
Explain how issues of validity and/or reliability may affect the classification and/or diagnosis of schizophrenia  Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder. This means it’s a loss of contact with reality, consistent with serious mental illness which typically includes delusions, hallucinations and disordered thinking. The disorder was first identified by Kraeplin(1986) who used the term ‘Dementia Praecox’. Bleuler (1911) later coined the term schizophrenia, which means split (schizo) mind (phrenia). Classification involves identifying groups or patterns of behavioural symptoms that occur together to form a type of mental disorder (e.g.
Biomedical therapies- Treatments for psychological disorders that alter brain functioning with chemical or physical interventions such as drug therapy, surgery, or electroconvulsive therapy. 3. Biopsychosocial model- A model of health and illness that suggests that links among the nervous system, the immune system, behavioral styles, cognitive processing, and environmental factors can put people at risk for illness. 4. Clinical ecology- A field of psychology that relates disorders such as anxiety and depression to environmental irritants and sources of trauma.
Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology PSY/410 Karen Wood University of Phoenix Psychological diagnostic procedures are currently defined by rule-based classifications that are strongly dependent upon symptom clusters; for example, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and are influenced by the medical model, which supports the concept of nosology. With this belief, psychological difficulties are viewed as pathological and therefore, questions are raised about what is “normal” and “abnormal” (Parpottas, (2012). This paper will examine the field of abnormal psychology; briefly examine the origins of abnormal psychology, including challenges to defining and classifying normal and abnormal behavior. This paper will also provide a brief overview of how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline; finally this paper will briefly analyze the psychosocial, biological/medical, and sociocultural theoretical models related to the development of abnormal psychology. Challenges to defining abnormal behavior include the complexity, as it makes it difficult to form diagnostic categories for mental disorders that are both reliable and valid.
Finally, the theoretical models of the development of abnormal psychology such as biological, medical, sociocultural and psychosocial are all-encompassing to conclude this paper. In order to comprehend abnormal psychology, it is imperative to first recognize what we mean by the word "abnormal." Abnormal behavior usually occurs when people experience distress and prevents functioning throughout their daily lives. Although there are many definitions that come from the average or normal person, most of them have their disadvantages and advantages in relation to determination of abnormal psychology perspectives. Abnormality considers a person or people that deviate from the ideal or cultural standards of society.
Impairments of cognitive function are commonly accompanied, occasionally preceded, by deterioration in emotional control, social behaviour, or motivation. The syndrome occurs in Alzheimer’s disease, in cerebrovascular disease, and in other conditions primarily or secondarily affecting the brain’. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK55480/ The social model of dementia were as the medical mode is more about the medical side of things the social model is more about the person and how the illness affects them. The social model of care is to understand the emotions and behaviours of the person with dementia by placing him or her within the context of his or her social circumstances and biography. By learning about each person with dementia as an individual, with his or her own history and background, care and support can be designed to be more appropriate to individual needs.
In fact, the ancient Greeks had recognised that abnormalities such as epilepsy might be caused by brain disorders, but it was not until physiologists like von Haller and Greisinger argued that the brain played a crucial role in causing abnormal behaviour that the biological approach ‘took off’. The biological approach to the causes of abnormality The biological approach sees abnormality as being caused by physical factors. The three physical factors are: (1) Brain damage (2) Faulty regulation of brain biochemistry (3) Genetic factors Brain damage: Early support for the biological approach came from studies of patients suffering from a condition called 'general paresis of the insane'. This condition is characterised by delusions of grandeur and mental deterioration. However, far from being caused by 'demonic possession', research showed that its causes were biological (it occurs if syphilis is left untreated - the syphilis bacterium makes its way to the brain and causes damage to it).
Is a person exhibiting maladaptive behavior due to something genetic; or is it something neurological; something gone awry in the brain cells? The Biological Perspective considers and strives to answer these and similar questions Psycho-dynamic Perspective holds that our thoughts and emotions provoke our mood and influence our behavior. Psychoanalysis is the method of approach taken by reach people who are deeply disturbed. This method challenges the patient to release repressed emotions and to search for the meaning behind his/her Theories 3 way of thinking. The environment in which we find ourselves plays a very big part in how we
Unit CMH 302 Understand mental health problems Outcome 1 Know the main forms of mental ill health 1. describe the main types of mental ill health according to the psychiatric (dsm/icd) classification system: mood disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, substance-related disorders, eating disorders, cognitive disorders Anxiety disorders – General anxiety disorder Psychotic disorders – Delusional disorder Substance-related disorders – Alcohol abuse Eating disorders - Anorexia nervosa/Bulimia nervosa Cognitive disorders - Alzheimer's disease 2. explain the key strengths and limitations of the psychiatric classification system The classification system provides a means for the multi axial assessment and includes Primary Diagnosis, Relationship Disorder, Medical and Developmental Disorders and conditions, Psychosocial Stressors, and Functional Emotional Development Level. Some approaches are less familiar to clinicians than other approaches and there would be no agreement on the choice of dimensions. 3. explain two alternative frameworks for understanding mental distress. Biological and medical frameworks (sometimes referred to as the disease model) view psychological problems as resulting, in the main, from physical causes such as brain defects, hereditary factors or as the results of accidents or injury. Behavioural frameworks are closely aligned to learning theories and have long been associated with early exponents of conditioning theories.