Brain scans can be used to help diagnose some disorders. Furthermore, the genes we are born with, from our parents, provide the blueprint for our bodies and brains. A slight abnormality in our genes can affect the functioning of our brains. Also to operate properly the brain relies on hundreds of chemicals to operate in the correct balance, these chemicals are used to send messages around the brain. Therefore if there are chemical imbalances abnormality may occur, for example low levels of serotonin are linked to depression and schizophrenia is linked with high levels of dopamine.
With things like diabetes, cancer and so on, the illness can be diagnosed by scans or blood tests. Schizophrenia and other mental illnesses have to be diagnosed and classified purely based on symptoms the patient is experiencing. Schizophrenia is particularly difficult to diagnose because it has many symptoms, some of which are similar to other mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder. This brings up the issue of differential diagnosis. Even some physical illnesses can cause symptoms that appear to be those of schizophrenia, for example temporal lobe epilepsy can have symptoms that can be mistaken for schizophrenia, and this can lead to misdiagnosis and a patient could end up being treated for the wrong illness completely.
DSM-IV Evaluation Case Study 1: Josephine suffers from DSM-IV: Schizoid Personality Disorder Causes: The exact cause of Schizoid Personality Disorder is unknown. However, it is believed that a mixture of genetic (having a parent who suffers from any of the disorders classified on the schizophrenic spectrum) and environmental factors (having a parent who did not respond to emotional needs) (Mayclinic: Schizoid Personality Disorder, 2010). Treatment: Treatment of Schizoid Personality Disorder includes the use of medications such as Risperdal, Zyprexa, and Wellbutrin that treat some of the symptoms associated with Schizoid Personality Disorder. Psychotherapy, or Cognitive Behavior Therapy, is used to assist in altering the beliefs and behaviors of the individual, and used to improve the development of social skills. Group Therapy is used to provide support structure to individuals suffering from Schizoid Personality Disorder and to provide social motivation (Mayclinic: Schizoid Personality Disorder, 2010).
Also, a potential drawback to serologic testing is a possible cross-reactivity with other protozoal parasites, generating in turn false-positive results. Such false-positivity may also arise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, whereas in immunosuppressed patients the test could show false-negative
Biomedical therapies- Treatments for psychological disorders that alter brain functioning with chemical or physical interventions such as drug therapy, surgery, or electroconvulsive therapy. 3. Biopsychosocial model- A model of health and illness that suggests that links among the nervous system, the immune system, behavioral styles, cognitive processing, and environmental factors can put people at risk for illness. 4. Clinical ecology- A field of psychology that relates disorders such as anxiety and depression to environmental irritants and sources of trauma.
Other factors such as traumatic brain injury, biological issues, and exposure to chemicals or viruses can contribute to mental disorders as well. Individuals suffering from mental illnesses are often shunned or ignored by the rest of society. State and national statistics are revealing indicators of the impact of mental illness on our population. For this reason, the needs of the mentally ill are specifically addressed by Healthy People 2020. As nurses we are obligated to help treat this population.
The first treatment in biological therapies is chemotherapy; this is the use of drugs to treat a mental illness. Under chemotherapy there are 3 main types of drugs; Antipsychotic, antidepressants and anxiolytic. Anti psychotic drugs are generally used for more severe mental health problems such as schizophrenia. They work by balancing chemicals in the brain such as dopamine as this is linked with there hallucinations. Antidepressants on the other hand by balancing neurotransmitters such as serotonin and epinephrine witch can cause depression if not sufficiently balanced.
Schizophrenia is a mental illness which is characterised by both positive symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and disordered thinking, and negative symptoms such as a loss of normal emotional responses, speech and motivation. There are a range of treatments from biological to psychological treatments such as chemotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Antipsychotics were originally developed to calm patients facing surgery, and they proved highly effective in reducing the incidence of death from surgical shock. Chlorpromazine and related phenothiazines were soon used in psychiatric patients, starting in the early 1950s. They revolutionised psychiatry by allowing the most disturbed schizophrenic patients live outside a psychiatric hospital, or reduce their average length of stay.
Pinel, biological psychology “is the scientific study of the biology of behavior.” Essentially biological psychology; also known as behavioral neuroscience, looks at the biological reasons for psychological differences. For example, fetal alcohol syndrome which is a biological effect of drinking while pregnant can and often does influence the psychological development of the fetus. This in turn results in slowed learning and poor behavioral patterns, which is no fault of the child. 2) What is the historical development of biological psychology? Biopsychology was historically developed in the 20th century; though no one is certain of the exact date, according to Pinel.
This is how scientist have been able to come up with medication to treat mental illnesses like depression, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. They have proven that there is a connection with genes and chemical changes in the brain that causes theses illnesses in the mind but with the right treatment, it can adjust the changes and chases the illness away. What is the historical development of biological psychology? While psychology is very broad, it is important to know the history of biological psychology because some of the past experiences have shaped into this school of thought to what it is today by providing us with a better