They found that the estimated speed was effected by the verb used in the question; smashed had the highest speed while contacted had the lowest speed. This shows that EWT is inaccurate due the leading questions which can affect the witness’s answers to things. The same psychologists did another experiment using the same methodology (which was fairly similar) expect they only used two verbs; smashed and hit. After a week had passed they asked the participants to come back and where asked if they saw any broken glass in the video. The group that got question with the verb ‘smashed’ stated they saw glass even though there wasn’t any.
The mean speed estimate was calculated for each group. The group given the word ‘smashed’ estimated a higher speed than the other groups (about 41 mph). The group given the word ‘contacted’ estimated the lowest speed (about 30 mph) Loftus’ research suggested that EWT was generally inaccurate and therefore unreliable, but not all researchers agree with this conclusion. Yuille and Cutshall (1986) interviewed 13 people who had witnessed an armed robbery in Canada. The interviews took place more than 4 months after the crime and included two misleading questions.
There’s evidence to prove that anxiety and stress has a conflicting effect on a witnesses recall. It’s said that high levels of stress and anxiety can either have a positive or negative effect on recall. A survey done by Christianson and Hubinette (1993) found that 58 witnesses who had been threatened during bank robberies has more detailed and accurate recall of events that those not threatened, even after 15 month. Although this is a survey it has ecological validity as it was conducted in a real life situation. This research suggests that if a person is threatened which will increase stress and anxiety levels, they are more likely to remember.
Hymowitz explains that even though numbers of suicide remain small, it has more than doubled in the last thirty years. The use of drugs and alcohol among tweens is increasing as well, but she uses in eighth graders in her example which means children from the ages 13 to 14 so this statement does not apply to tweens. So, should the reader trust that the statistics are accurate, or could they be the author’s invention? These last few topics are brought up very briefly throughout her article. With these topics being brought up very briefly it makes the article appear very
However, some experts believe the rates have declined because the baby boomer generations are aging, so the percentage of young adults has declined. Some believe that the tougher or harsher sentences for crimes are a cause and there is evidence of this based on the increased prison populations. According to "Where Have All The Burglars Gone?" (2013), "Could more criminals being locked up be the answer? The number of people behind bars has grown substantially in many countries over the past 20 years.” (para.
However, the people who were subjected to the highest levels of anxiety were nearest to the incident so would have been able to see more clearly what happened. Also Christianson and Hubinette who interviewed people who had witnessed genuine bank robberies and found that the people who had been subjected to the greatest anxiety had the most detailed and accurate recall, Some were onlookers and some were bank clerks who had been directly threatened by the robbers.The recall lasted even after 15 months. There is also Research showing that anxiety has a negative effect on eye witness testimony such as Peters who again interviewed people attending a health clinic for an injection (which would make people anxious) and whilst they were there they spent an equal amount of time with the nurse and the researcher. A week later when participants were asked to identify both the nurse and the researcher they found it easier to identify the researcher. Loftus took two groups of participants who would over hear either an argument which is violent or a discussion a more peaceful scene followed by a man leaving the room where the argument or discussion took place either holding a knife
• In an average classroom of 20 children, there are most likely at least three children who are either victims or bullies. • One-half of motor vehicle accidents involving adolescents are associated with alcohol and other drugs. Methodology: This is a Quantitative study providing seemingly countless statistics, percents, and relationships between children and the “critical issues” they face today. Findings: Although poverty rates have gone down in the last 15 years, with the recent economic downturn, it is anticipated that we will again experience significant increases in children living poverty. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that children, adolescents, and young adults are disproportionately affected by violent injury and death.
The first of these is “Observational learning and imitation”. This shows that children may imitate violent behaviour they observe on television, especially if real people are involved and the child can identify themselves with the character. Phillips’s study of 1983 supports this theory; he examined crime statistics for a 10 day period following televised boxing contests and found an increase in violent crimes such as murder, yet when compared with statistics after an American football championship, no rise in aggressive behaviour was found. Despite identification of the aggressor being integral to this theory, Bandura’s research showed that a moderate level of aggression was found even though the protagonist was in a cartoon, where a decreased sense of character identification must occur with the child. Secondly, “Cognitive Priming” refers to the activation of aggressive thoughts and feelings and explains why people act more violently than normal after viewing a violent television show.
''Over 1,000 studies point overwhelmingly to a causal connection between media violence and aggressive behavior in some children.". The effects of media violence on society,especially children and teenagers, are doubtlessly very negative. Several studies done in the United States and Canada have shown a positive relationship between early exposure to television violence and physical aggressiveness in later life. Media exposure leads to a desensitization to violence and is associated with violent and aggressive behavior, bullying, fear, depression, nightmares and sleep disorders. The results of a longitudinal study tracked 700 male and female youths over a fifteen-year period.