Discuss research into obedience (12 marks) Milgram conducted an study to investigate obedience and to see how people obey. It was a volunteer sampled study which recruited 40 male participants, everyone being paid $4.50. There were two confederates; the experimenter and a 47- year-old accountant. The participant would always be picked as the 'teacher' and the 47-tear-old confederate the 'learner', the participant was told to administer increasingly strong electric shocks to the 'learner' if he got a question wrong. To give the study more realism the machine that would give the shocks was used on the participant.
What one of the subjects was unaware of is that they were the one that the experiment was based on. The other participants were confederates of Asch, giving deliberate incorrect answers. When the confederates disagreed with the subject, Asch states, “He looks surprised, indeed incredulous, about the disagreement” (Asch, 656). Each of the 123 subjects had been placed in 18 rounds of questioning. Of these subjects, 75% of them changed their answers to the majority vote at least once.
It was concluded that people look to those with more knowledge for guidance in the desire to be right, this is informational social influence. Asch (1951) aimed to study the effects of social pressure on people’s willingness to conform. He used a line experiment on American male students as a form of an unambiguous task, all but one of the men were confederates and had decided prior to the experiment wrong answers to the test in an attempt to sway the naive participants answer. After 18 trials of asking them to choose the line the same length of the original line, it was found that 75% of people conformed at least once, and many often did more than that. There was evidence of both normative and informational social influence in this trial as some participants admitted to conforming without truly believing the confederates in order to avoid being made fun of, though some actually began to believe the false answers.
Asch used a lab experiment to study conformity; he got 50 males to come and do the experiment and used 7 people who were confederates, the confederates had agreed in advance what their responses would be when shown with the line task. The real participant did not know this and was led to believe that the other seven participants were also real participants like themselves. There were 18 trials in total and the confederates gave the wrong answer on 12 trails. Asch was interested to see if the real participant would conform to the majority view. Asch measured the number of times each participant conformed to the majority view.
Outline and Evaluate research into conformity (12 marks) Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in belief or behaviour in order to fit in with a group. This change is in response to real (involving the physical presence of others) or imagined (involving the pressure of social norms / expectations) group pressure. The term conformity is often used to indicate an agreement to the majority position, brought about either by a desire to ‘fit in’ (normative) or because of a desire to be correct (informational). In 1935, Sherif conducted an experiment with the aim of demonstrating that people conform to group norms when they are put in an ambiguous situation. He used a lab experiment to study conformity.
This tells us that there was still a lot of mixture that was not distilled. Most likely, because Heptane has a higher boiling point than Hexane, most of the solution still left over that was recorded in the GC was Heptane. Another thing that sticks out is that there was no peak recorded in our second fraction. This could mean several different things. Because no peak was recorded, it leads us to believe that a bad fraction was taken.
Another key problem was that there were was no direct manipulation of the independent variable so the study doesn’t tell us which element of the stress index is most important and related to the decrease in immune function. Therefore a cause and effect relationship cannot be entirely confirmed, yet a strong correlation between the life stress and the common cold occurred, and for that reason it can be assumed that they were associated with one another. On the other hand the study measured the health outcomes of the participants which proved that there was a relationship between the variables. The results show that the higher the stress index it scored, the more susceptible the participants were to the common cold which subsequently supports Cohen’s theory. Also the study was covered by rigorous ethical considerations as all
One male student from the class participated but was not included in the data because of technical difficulties. Data collection techniques Participants were told by their instructor that they would be taking two separate personality tests to compare the results of the two with each other. The first test taken was the MBTI, which was to be self-administered via a website and self-reported on a worksheet. Students were given a link to the test and told to bring their scores with them to the next class meeting. The students and instructor used the SPSS computer program to obtain significant data from the results.
Not only did this study state that the weapons banned were only used in a small percent of crimes even before the ban, but also "found no statistical evidence of post-ban decreases in either the number of victims per gun-homicide incident, the number of gunshot wounds per victim, or the proportion of gunshot victims with multiple wounds. "(Koper, Roth 67) So even if Congress bans these vaguely named assault weapons it will most likely be as ineffective as the last time they did so. Some take issue with the ban not because of its’ functionality problems, but because they feel it violates their rights as
This claim is not sound because health considerations are a good reason to convince people not to smoke it, but there is not sufficient evidence to justify making it illegal. The only way that marijuana even poses a health threat is when it is smoked. Though with anything smoked it is a health hazard because of the carbon produced. Marijuana can be safely ingested or vaporized, eliminating all potential health risks. A study done at UCLA indicated that heavy marijuana smokers showed less lung injury than tobacco smokers.