Therefore it is thought that life stress and negative emotions can reduce the effectiveness of the immune system. A criticism with this study is that a cause and effect can’t be established because there was no direct manipulation of the independent variable i.e. the stress index. This was a questionnaire so demand characteristics were present meaning that they could have not been telling the truth (social desirability) or have forgotten. Also in this study there wasn’t a direct way of measuring immune function and is only an indirect study.
They id not respond appropriately to allegations of abuse. They had not responded to or considered complaints and views of people about the service. Investigations into the conduct of staff were not robust enough and had not safeguarded the residents. The report said that it was now clear that the problems at Winterbourne View were far worse than initially indicated by the whistle-blower and that the provider had effectively misled the Q.C.Q by not keeping them informed about incidents as required by
A problem with this is that it doesn’t state whether it is cause or effect. Significant support for the biological explanation of depression comes from neuroendocrine factors. Cortisol levels are higher in depressed people. A stress reaction leads to the production of Cortisol, a key hormone in arousal. In normal people a mechanism prevents excessive or prolonged arousal in response to a stressor.
The clinical outcome in this situation was clearly that Mr. B was over-sedated leading to a very dangerous situation. Hypoxia during sedation is a common side affect, which is treated by giving the patient O2 or reversing the sedation. However in this situation the staff was not aware that he was hypoxic, and why weren’t they? The answer a nurse had silenced the alarm but had not done an assessment nor alerted anyone else of the situation. Why did the nurse choose to silence the alarm with no further action?
A.2. Nightingale Community Hospital has numerous standards that failed compliance. For instance, in the standard involving the Environment of Care, the organization failed to prove that it could be a secure and the setting itself was functional. The Life Safety standard was not met due to its inadequate fire safety. The Leadership standard also was not met due to staffing insufficiencies.
Title: Why Ice May Be Bad for Sore Muscles Source: The New York Times (Health Section) Author: Gretchen Reynolds Date of article: January 4, 2012 According to the article, medicine suggests that for sore muscles, ice is not always the panacea that most of us believe it to be and that, in some instances, it can be counterproductive. Icing is used to deal with muscles that twinge but aren’t formally injured. However, there is little science to support the practice. While Cold packs do seem to reduce pain in injured tissues, icing’s overall effects on sore muscles have “not been fully elucidated” and far more study was needed. According to a trial made on sore leg muscle tissues, the authors write that, in a majority of the studies they
Packard Electrical had previously experienced excellent results in the United States based on their traditional operational processes but had failed to impress in the overseas market, serving a different type of customer. This is due to a number of systemic problems in the customer serving processes inherent in the Rio Bravo plant operations. These problems are highlighted in the report and are: • A lack of proper planning led to the mismatch of resources, which includes human talent, infrastructure; • • • • Careless planning and poor execution of processes; A lack of customer focus; Poor communication across the supply chain; Misalignment in philosophies and value systems between Packard Electrical and NUMMI; • • Lack of a change management system and A dearth of continuous improvement The primary causes of the above stated problems were a lack of lack of proper strategic planning on behalf of Packard Electric’s management team. There was also a lack of planning in the design and development of the plant taking into account the demanding customer requirements. There are also appeared to be a lack of understanding of the exact customer requirements and how to deliver the exepcted quality.
Four studies mentioned contraindications to using heparin to treat burns. These contraindications were bleeding diathesis, bleeding history, active bleeding or associated trauma with potential bleeding, active intestinal ulcer, thrombocytopenia, liver disease, renal disorders, or allergy to heparin. Conclusion:There is no strong evidence in the 19 abstracted articles to suggest that heparin should be used in the treatment of burn injury on account of its non-anticoagulant properties. However, since the lack of evidence is largely a function of the poor quality of the articles, further research is needed to investigate the potential uses of heparin in the treatment of burn
This sample was then compared to a small sample of military personnel. Lombroso failed to recognise that correlation does not imply causality. Just because these people all shared similar physical anomalies, does not imply that they were criminals, these physical abnormalities could have been a result of poverty and deprivation of basic needs in life. Lombroso's study was also criticised as the army group he used for his comparison all had violent tendencies anyway and were not a subjected sample of society. In later years, Lombroso's theory has moved from the genetic approach towards the environmental approach.
The treaties and restrictions governing biological warfare’s usage and development are flawed in that they are difficult if not impossible to verify, and thus are unable to prevent its development and usage because of how simple it is to create potent biological weapons and how unpredictable and deadly they can become in the hands of potential terrorist groups and in today’s fragile and vulnerable society. Several treaties in the 20th century have attempted to prevent biological weapon development programs. Conventions like the Biological Warfare Convention (BWC) in 1975 and the Geneva Conventions of the 1900s have been unable to be executed, verified, and followed by many of their signers. These treaties have thus been unable to keep a hold on the problems that biological weapons can pose. These treaties also