Bowlby believed that attachments are natural and adaptive. He also believed that we are all born with an inherited need to form attachments and this is to help us survive. This can also line up with Darwin’s theory of natural selection, which explains that any behaviour that helps us to survive to maturity and reproduce will be maintained in the gene pool. For example; a baby relies on its mother for food and care etc and without the mother the baby would be helpless. Babies have social releaser which unlocks the innate tendency for adults to care for them; these are both physical and behavioural social releasers.
Tay-Sachs Case Study Having a baby is usually a time of great happiness. Unfortunately for some, genetic mutations that are unknown at the time of conception can derail the joy that pregnancy can bring. This case study will take a look at the Trosack family who carry the Tay-Sachs disease and the process that a case manager must go through to assist the family in understanding such a devastating genetic disorder. Mr. and Mrs. Trosack are scheduled to come in for an initial visit and it is the case manager’s job to determine how to best meet the needs of Mrs. Trosack in terms of her pregnancy. Mrs. Trosack, upon finding out that she was pregnant, visited her obstetrician, Dr. Zimmerman, to determine the best course of prenatal care.
Bowlby was very much influenced by Lorenz’s (1935) study of imprinting which showed that attachment was innate and therefore has a survival value - during the evolution of humans it would have been the babies who stayed close to their mothers who would have survived to have children of their own. In turn, Bowlbys evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with their main caregiver – usually the mother – in order to survive, this is known as monotropy. According to this babies instinctively seek proximity to their mother figures; hence they display social releaser behaviours, e.g. crying when in contact with a stranger, in order to stimulate care from mother. Forming this attachment provides a safe base, giving babies the confidence to explore, therefore Bowlby suggested that this initial attachment relationship acts as a prototype for all future social relationships so disrupting it during the critical period (first 2 1/2 years) can have severe consequences on the childs development.
Ringo and Dallas act as the newly married couple ready to start a family, Curley and Doc Boone act as fatherly figures for Ringo and Dallas, Hatfield acts as a husband/protector over Lucy in the absence of her real husband. As well Dallas takes on the role of the mother when Lucy’s baby is born. The protection of the baby and women (ideals of continuity of civilization) is stressed as we see Hatfield taking part in this trip in order to protect Lucy Mallory in an environment that is not fit for her, as well as saving the last bullet
The mothers-to-be would designate a brave or impressive relative to be a sort of role model for the child. Before her child was yet born, the mother would spend a significant amount of time rehearsing particular noble deeds or courageous exploits performed by the chosen relative. She would later go on to tell the child these stories, giving he or she a relative to look up to. A pregnant woman would also refrain from eating the meat of certain animals for it was believed to have influenced a child’s physical characteristics (Eastman 1902: 49.) Even before birth, a child’s well-being and education was greatly valued among in Lakota society.
Outline and evaluate research into the effects of institutionalisation (12 marks) Olivia Gibson Hodges and Tizard conducted a natural experiment that was longitudinal. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of institutional upbringing on later attachments. They studied 65 children who were all 16 years old and were brought up in a care home for the first four years of their lives. During their stay in the children’s home they had little opportunity to form an attachment because the children's home had a policy forbidding the staff to form attachments with the children, and so the care given was functional and lacked warmth, also staff turnover rate was high; by the age of two the children had approximately 24 carers each. At the age of four 25 of them were returned to their biological families, 33 of them were adopted and 7 of them were kept in the institution and occasionally adopted.
Bowlby then went on to suggest that if the baby did not develop during this time then there would be catastrophic consequences. Yet another thing Bowlby suggested was that it was adaptive and innate. The babies physical ‘stay close’ mechanism is then replaced by a psychological stay close mechanism. It was also suggested that the Mother provides a safe base for exploration and learning. This was also supported by the Strange Situation experiment.
Warts educational experience further accentuates the indication of an anti-war society when he visits the geese society, for example, facing first-hand the ways of a Utopian society. One of the geese in the society, Lyo-Lyok, tells Arthur the idea of fighting is stupid. He only enjoys the idea because he is a “baby,” (White 170). The idea of the injustice of fighting is drilled into his mind in all different ways as he grows up. The education received as a child effectively takes place during his transition from young Wart to King Arthur.
Attachment Style and Relationships An individual’s attachment style will have a strong effect upon the type of love relationship he or she will have. Following the study results of Hazen and Shaver (1994), we can surmise that the relationship between an infant and their parents will likely define the type of relationships the child will be prone to in adulthood. It is also logical to assume that whatever relationship infants have with their parents will be unchanged even as they grow older. Since people are not born with an innate relationship style, it is something that is learned from their primary caregiver when they are as early as infancy. It is a continual educational process through childhood, as well.
Men look for characteristics such as nice skin, glossy hair and a thin waste in women as this shows a sign of healthiness and fertility meaning that they will be able to reproduce and raise a baby successfully. Women on the other hand look for characteristics such as strength, a provider and a caring nature, these show that the man will be able to provide for her and support her when she is pregnant. The evolutionary explanation explains this as a way of maximising their reproductive success as the woman is going to be depending on the man to bring back meat from hunting in order for her and her baby to survive. This is why today we see many women trying to enhance their physical attractiveness and men advertise their status