When an infant has had an attachment and it has been broken. There is research done into deprivation by Bowlby. This is his Maternal deprivation hypothesis, which stated the belief that if an infant was unable to build a "warm, intimate, continuous relationship with its mother", it would then result in having difficulties building relationships with other people and also the risk of behavioural disorders. This hypothesis says that relationships that are discontinuous or where there are separations becomes unstable which causes the development of the relationship to be disrupted. It focuses on how important an relationship between a mother and child is.
The purpose of this paper is to use the habituation technique in young infants to evaluate one hypothesis derived from Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. I will compare 5-months olds in a task that involves possible and impossible outcomes. Piaget’s theory specifies the cognitive competencies of children of this age. 1a. In their sensorimotor stage, from birth to age 2, children experience the world through their senses and actions (Myers, 2013).
They may develop this way because object permanence involves remembering and absorbing what the infant already saw. Infants become attached to their caregiver, and feel afraid when someone new comes because they have no schema for this new person. 1d. McCrink and Wynn’s theory states, infants have an inborn sense of numbers. They are born with an object-tracking system and a numerical system, which allows them to differentiate and keep track of amounts of objects.
Hewas in support of child day care as long as it was continuous and high quality,although a preference of parental care was suggested by Rutter. There is a difficulty in isolatingvariables which result in positive and negative attachments. Indeed somefeminists argue that stay at home mothers are often at risk of harming theirchildren through an inability to cope and lack of support from immediate orextended family. Associated with this argument is that of the risk fromdomestic violence which increases isolation and effects the development of thechild - even if the primary caregiver is ever present. From the 1950s anincreased development of the nuclear family has been argued to provide a duelfunction.
This means that this theory is much more valid and so can be applied to real life situations such as ensuring that a baby is immediately given to the mother after birth to ensure that they become attached. Having said this, this theory lacks historical validity. This is because it is sexist as it was put forward before the feminist movement in which women gained much more independence and no longer remained the primary caregiver. In the modern day there are many fathers who stay at home to take care of the infant while the mother goes out to work, these children do not always go on to form emotional problems. This shows that this theory needs to be altered slightly so as to apply to the modern day.
OUTLINE AND EVALUATE THE USE OF THE STRANGE STUATION TO ASSESS ATTACHMENT 12 MARKS The SS (strange situation) is a controlled observation research technique used to measure the kind of attachment between an infant (age between 9 – 18 months) and a parent. Ainsworth used 25 middle class working women and infants to help carry out this experiment. It is conducted in a lab environment with a 9x9 foot square, marked off in 16 squares to help record the infants’ movement accurately so as to compare and record how far the child explores. The procedure lasts 21 minutes each lasting three minutes. Ainsworth observed the experiment covertly using a one way mirror so as not do distort her results by having another stranger in the room.
There are assessments when a child is aged between 2 and 3 years and at the end of the academic year when they turn 5. The assessments are based on EYFS practitioners’ observations. Information from the assessments is used for parents, practitioners and teachers to support children’s learning and development. The 7 areas that early years learning concentrates on are: * communication and language * physical development * personal, social and emotional development * literacy * mathematics * understanding of the world * expressive arts and design Teaching is often done through play, where the child learns about subjects and other people through games. At the end of the academic year when a child turns 5, the practitioner records each child’s development by watching the child playing and in the classroom.
Therefore, if there is no consistent caregiver over this period, it is highly unlikely that the baby will form an attachment. However, the amount of time adults spend with infants is not the only factor determining whether attachments will develop. The quality of the adult-infant interaction also becomes equally important. Accordingly, Bowlby believed that infants will develop an attachment to caregivers who have been associated over time with consistent, predictable, and appropriate responses to the infant’s signals, needs and desires (Lamb, Bornstein, and Teti,
Childhood is slowly being pushed out of existence to make room for the fast pace moving lifestyle we live today. This is the main topic discussed in David Elkind’s, “the Hurried Child”. Adults are pressuring our children of the future to grow up and become adults way before they are ready. The simplest thing can upset the balance of childhood such as the way we dress them. Dressing children in adult clothing has been suggested as hurrying because it makes them look like adults so they feel they should act as adults and we lose sight of their innocence.
When shown together there evidence provided a way of proving how levels of security in these relationships have substantial impact upon infants development. It is important to mention that the “strange situation” technique has received criticisms surrounding ethics with regards to intentionally inflicting distress upon infants by purposely separating them from their attachment figure however it has been argued that this situation is something that does occur naturally in an infants life. The ecological validity of the research and its ability to be generalised within different cultures has also been questioned as the study used only a sample of westernised participants. For Bowlby the IWM only had capacity to change in the period of infancy after this it is fixed for the rest of a persons life therefore a link should be able to be demonstrated between infant attachment classifications and adult attachment classifications. Continuing from the work of Bowlby and Ainsworth the adult attachment interview was developed by Main, here an adults ability to integrate childhood memories of relationships with attachment figures into working models of relationships was assessed identifying in accordance to Main three