According to the biological model, there are a few biological things that explain abnormalities; genetics, brain damage, infections, biochemistry and neuroanatomy. The biological model states that some people might be genetically at risk of developing a mental disorder. However, there is only evidence for this in the cases of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. For example, first degree relatives are more likely to develop schizophrenia than second degree relatives. Gottesman & Shield (1972) found that concordance rate for schizophrenia in non-identical twins is approximately 9% whereas for identical twins, the concordance rate is 42%.
Gottesman and Shields carried out early familial studies and gave % likelihood rates for various relatives. For example, if you have a parent with schizophrenia, the life-time risk of schizophrenia for you is 5.6%. Family studies have confirmed that the disorder does tend to run in families; however it is not clear whether this is due to genetics or environmental factors. Twin and adoption studies have been carried out to investigate this. As monozygotic twins have 100% of genes in common, it is suggested that the concordance rate for them is greater then dizygotic twins.
The first explanation of phobias is the genetic explanation, which argues that phobias are hereditary. Most if the family studies conducted by researchers have found that relatives of those with phobias are more likely to suffer phobias themselves compared with relatives of non-phobic controls. A twin study by Slater and Shields 1969 found 41% concordance in 17MZ twin pairs versus 4% in 28 DZ twin pairs for any type of anxiety disorder. However even though studies have proven to support the genetic problems there are a number of difficulties with family studies. The main problem is that in most cases family members share the same environment so it can be argued that it was the environment that caused them to equally learn the behaviour instead of the genetic relationship.
It is clear that postnatal maternal depression can impair maternal care and may be associated with delayed social, behavioral, cognitive, and physical development in growing children. There also is evidence that adolescent children of depressed fathers are likelier to experience psychopathology. This longitudinal cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), postulated that paternal depression postnatally would be associated with a heightened risk of behavioral and emotional problems at age 3.5 years. Participants included 13,351 mothers and 12,884 fathers, all of them evaluated 8 weeks postnatally using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The fathers were again assessed when their children were 21 months old.
If one of a pair of twins has psoriasis, the other twin has a 70% chance of having it too. 2: Biological – Smoking during pregnancy. Babies born to mothers who smoke: are more likely to be born prematurely and with a low birth weight.They can also have organs that are smaller on average than babies born to non-smokers. This could lead to babies having poorer lung function.Babies that are born to mothers who smoke during pregnancy are twice as likely to die from cot death. There seems to be a direct link between cot death and parents smoking.
I agree with the psychodynamic perspective because I have anxiety attacks from situations that have happened to me as a child. I also agree with the biological perspective because I believe everything is genetic. If someone in my close family has a mental problems, chances of me having them are high. I had a hard time choosing the one I agree with the least because for the most part I can see where each one makes
Bateson et al (1956) suggested that children who frequently receive contradictory messages from their parents are more likely to develop schizophrenia e.g. a mother hugs her child but then disapprovingly tells him off for being “clingy”. This is known as the double-bind theory. There is evidence to support the double-bind theory. Berger found that schizophrenics reported a higher recall of double-bind statements by their mothers than non-schizophrenics.
Many of the children suffered cognitive deficits but this might have rather been a result of a lack of substantial intellectual stimulation within the institutions as opposed to privation. Also approximately only half of the Romanian orphans showed mental deficits from the start even though they had all come from the same institution. Perhaps the other half like the Koluchova twins had overcome privation by using each other as effective forms of substitute care replacing the role of an adult
There are many reasons why someone would argue these reasons for instance mental health could be argued by someone who supports the nature debate that someone can be born with genes that can make them more susceptible to problems in this area. From another angle though, someone arguing for the sake of the nurture debate could say that this was false and that someone has to have had the influence of bad things happening to them during their life to be this way and cannot be born that way. Mental disorders account for a large proportion of the diseases in young people from all societies (s1). Most start at an early age but are not picked up until later in life, and it is of great concern as it notably results in lower educational achievements, substance abuse, violence and poor reproductive and sexual health (s3). This issue with mental health is a huge problem to our society.
Each pair of chromosomes includes one chromosome from the mother and one from the father, but your genetic pattern and development may be very different to your parents. Genetic can effect development if the genes are mutated or diagnosed with an illness causing the child or individual to be slightly different from the norm in society. An example of this would be: Asthma Asthma is a common lung disorder that causes the airways to tighten and contain thick mucus which makes it harder for the person with the disease to breathe or respire, symptoms of asthma could be coughing and wheezing as well as the individual having shortness of breath. Asthma is not fully understood on how it is present but only genetic inheritance diet and pollution can be blamed as they may also contribute to causing this disease. Even though this disease is very common this may make a individual different from society.